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3110MED : Global Climate Change And Health

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3110MED : Global Climate Change And Health

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3110MED : Global Climate Change And Health

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Course Code: 3110MED
University: Griffith University

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Country: Australia

Question:
Describe two health care concerns related to global climate change.
Topics could include increased exposure to vectors that transmit Zika, West Nile virus, or malaria; respiratory problems; food distribution problems due to drought or lack of water; or heat-related illness.
Answer:
 
Effect of global climate change on health
 
Vector borne diseases

Vectors are known as intermediate hosts and transfer pathogen to the living host. Some of the vectors like mosquitoes, ticks and flies considered to be the most common vectors for Virus Borne Disease (Medlock and Leach, 2015). These vectors can be affected by climate change. As the temperature increases the insect vectors found in low-latitude regions and high altitude areas. This leads to geographical distribution of a disease such as malaria, Lyme disease and yellow fever (Wu, Lu, Zhou, Chen, & Xu, 2016).
Zika Virus is the major topic of discussion which is causing deaths globally. It is a vector borne disease transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. The raising climate instability is beneficial for the vectors. This mosquito vector is mostly found in tropical regions in Africa, South America and South East Asia etc. As the temperature is increasing globally, this help in distribution of VBD (Vector Borne Disease) in various part of the world. The Larval development in Zika transmitting mosquito, increase with the temperature. The warmer temperature provides a suitable environment to larval stage to mature faster. The increased temperature also decreases the incubation period of the mosquito. As the vector found suitable environment, they introduce the virus to the population (Asad & Carpenter, 2017).  
The Zika virus discovered in Uganda where a rhesus monkey was detected with this micro-organism and furthers it was found in a field worker (Medscape, 2017). The infection caused by Zika virus in human was diagnosed in 1954 in Nigeria. The first major outbreak of this disease was found on Yap Island in 2007 where around 11 per cent population has been affected by this Virus and further reached to the other regions of the world such as Central America, Brazil, Australia, Japan and Norway. In 2010 this virus outreaches various countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Philippians.
 In early 2015, in Brazil nearly 440,000 to 1300,000 cases with this virus suspected (Song, Yun, Woolley, & Lee, 2017) which is very high compare to United States where only 5,168 cases of Zika virus were identified in 2016 (Hall et al. 2018). Compare to Italy where less than 100 cases were recorded in 2016, US recorded high number of affected people (NEWS, 2016). The major reason of Zika cases was the people came back from countries like Brazil diagnosed with this virus.  
Strategies could be implementing in Zika Patient 
There is no treatment or vaccine to control infection caused by Zika virus which indicates that prevention is the best policy to stop the illness. Nurses can play an important role in health promotion and protection. The awareness is very important to stop the infection. The nurses may visit every house of a community and educating them about the transmission process of Zika and the preventive measures. Counselling can be provided to the people about the sexual transmission of Zika. Some of the repellents can be provided which contains N, N- dimethyl Ibenzamide and icaridin (Wilson & Nguyen, 2017). Patients should be advised to use Nets. Fumigation can be applied to stop Larva transport near the patient. The vector breeding sites such as water bodies and waste drainage pipes should be eliminated. Some of the medicines can be prescribed such as acetaminophen and ibuprophen to relieve the pain. More fluids can be added to the patient’s diet (Mayo clinic, 2018).
Heat related illness
Long exposure to the high temperature leads to illness. There is many health related issues are associated with increased heat such as Heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps and heat rash. The extreme heat may also results in death. As the climate of earth changing the heat related illness also increasing in all over the world. Extreme heat is also linked to cardiovascular disease and other concisions like strokes and dysthymia. The increased heat also causes damage of tissues know as Rhabdomyolysis. Warmer temperature affect the ability of body to intake water which further leads to Bladder and kidney infections (Public Health, 2018).
The raising temperature to climate change affecting the whole world. Particularly in France there is 14,602 people were dead in 2003 (Butler, 2016), more than 70,000 deaths were recorded in 2003 in Europe. A killer summer heat hit California in 2006 nearly 660 people lost their lives (public health, 2018)According to World Health organisation (2018) between 2030 to 2050  climate change will cause around 250000 additional death per year .
Increasing heat is the major concern in US. In past few years US faced record breaking hotter summer. According to a data published in Statista (2018) the number of deaths occurred in US was 131 in the year of 2016 which is very less compare to other countries like Russia, India and Pakistan. In 2016 nearly 55740 deaths were recorded due to extreme heat in Russia. In India and Pakistan nearly 4000 deaths were reported. US is spending Millions of dollars to provide medical care to people affected with extreme heat (Schmeltz, petkova & Gamble, 2016).
Nurse’s role

The nurses can advise people to avoid excess clothing, implement of cooling devices at home.
Adding more fluids in patient’s diet.
The medicines prescribed for the patient should be kept in refrigerators.
Recommending Fruit consumption to the patient with heat illness.
The heatwave friendly practices should be used for the patient with cool rooms.
Filtered water consumption and sun lights should be blocked (Karu, 2013).

Conclusion
There are many health related problems related to climate change. Vector borne disease and heat related illness are two major concerns for the whole world. Zika viruse accounts for many deaths worldwide and can be controlled with some awareness and prevention provided by nurses to the people. Particularly US the number of desth were less than other countries like Brazil and Australia. Heat related illness also responsible for deaths around the world. The number of death recorded less in United States compare to other countries like Russia, India and Pakistan. Some of the interventions such providing cool room, avoiding excessive clothes can be provided by nurses as a prevention strategies to control the illness.
Introduction:
The climate change is the change in the pattern of earth’s climate or weather over long time. It is also known as global warming. The Earth’s environment is warm and cool for many years before the human existence. But the human activities affecting the climate adversely and increasing temperature and draught continuously.  Exposure of various viral and bacterial infections has been raised that cause’s human disease. This study will include the two major health issues caused by global climate change. The health related problem will be compared and the strategies to overcome such health concerns will be discussed.  
References:
Asad, H., & Carpenter, D. O. (2017). Effects of climate change on the spread of Zika virus: a public health threat. Reviews on Environmental Health, 33(1), 31-42.
Butler, C. D. (2016). Climate change and global health. Australia: CAB International, 12-16.
Hall, V., Walker, W. L., Lindsey, N. P., Lehman, J. A., Kolsin, J., Landry, K., … & Gould, C. V. (2018). Update: noncongenital Zika virus disease cases—50 US states and the District of Columbia, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(9), 265.
Karu, S. D. (2013). Heat-related illness. Critical Care Nursing Clinics, 25(2), 251-262.
Mayoclinic (2018). Zika virus disease. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/zika-virus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353645 
Medlock, J. M. & Leach, S. A. (2015). Effect of climate change on vector- borne disease risk in the UK. The Lancet Infectious diseases, 15(6), 721-730.
Medscape (2017). Zika Virus. Retrieved from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500035-overview
News (2016). Italy Confirms nine cases of Zika: reports. Retrieved from: https://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-02/06/c_135079241.htm
Public Health (2018). Climate change. Retrieved from: https://www.publichealth.org/public-awareness/climate-change/
Schmeltz, M. T., Petkova, E. P., & Gamble, J. L. (2016). Economic burden of hospitalisations for heat-related illness in the United States. International Journal of environmental research and public health, 13(9), 894.
Song, B., Yun, S., Woolley, M., & Lee, Y., (2017). Zika Virus: History, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentartion. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 308, 50-64.
Statista (2018). Number of deaths from extreme heat events in select countries worldwide as of 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/709355/extreme-heat-deaths-in-select-countries-worldwide/
WHO (2018). Climate change and health. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health
Wilson, A., & Nguyen, T. N. M. (2017). The Zika virus Epidemic: Public health Roles for Nurses. The online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(1).
Wu, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L., & Xu, B. (2016). Impacts of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environment International, 86, 14-23.

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