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401206 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health 2

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401206 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health 2

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401206 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health 2

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Course Code: 401206
University: Western Sydney University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Present one specific healthcare need releted to Aboriginal and Torres Strait People (Urban, regional,remote community)

Health Promotion Program For Aboriginals In Diabetes Management
Important complications associated with diabetes
Education as the first priority in the health
Approach to educate the target population



The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the indigenous people are increasing at an alarming rate
This is resulting in occurrence of number of associated disorders like cardiovascular disorders, kidney problems, eye problems and many others
Therefore, it is extremely important to find out the factors which are resulting in the disorder among the aboriginals (Gauci et al., 2018 )
Proper health promotion plan needs to be developed by healthcare representatives so that they can be protected from the harmful disorder
Proper health promotion program would help them to lead better quality lives


In the year 2012 to 2013, studies have revealed that

Indigenous people are seen to be for times more likely to be admitted to hospitals in comparison to their non-indigenous counterparts for diabetes (Lyons et al., 2014)
Diabetes was also seen to be the second cause that was responsible for the underlying cause of death for the indigenous people and this was found to be six times higher than the non-indigenous people were.


Factors that contribute to the development of the occurrence of diabetes in the indigenous people;

High blood pressure which is not controlled
High blood cholesterol which is not controlled
Lifestyle factor that promotes tobacco smoking in their culture
Low levels of physical activity (Gauci et al., 2018)
Improper knowledge of diet management
Being overweight

Important complications associated with diabetes 

Circulatory complications of diabetes may result in affecting different heart and blood vessels resulting in occurrence of angina, heart attack, stroke as well as peripheral vascular tissue
Renal complications of diabetes are seen to affect the kidneys causing diabetic nephropathy as well as chronic kidney failure
Ophthalmic complications are seen to affect eyes causing diabetic retinopathy, cataracts as well as glaucoma 
Other complications mainly include the damage of the nerve structure and their functions. This mainly occurs due to the result of the reduction of the blood flow to the different nerves.
Peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy are also common


When statistical analysis is conducted for finding out individuals who hare suffering from diabetes in the remote as well as very remote areas, a number of data had been found.
Hospitalizations of aboriginal people due to circulatory issues associated with diabetes are 23 and the rate ratio is 1.3 in comparison to non-indigenous people.
Renal issues due to diabetes shows rate of 52 with a rate ratio of 7.7 (Nilashi et al., 2016)
Ophthalmic issues associated with diabetes shows a rate of 29 and a rate ratio of 3.1
Other specified disorders which included hospitalization due to diabetes is 413 with a rate ratio of 8.3
Multiple complications due to diabetes accounts to a rate of 412 with a rate ratio of 9.7
No complications accounts to 22 with a rate ratio of 4.6
951 people were seen to be affected and hospitalized and the rate ratio of it was 7.3 due to diabetes mellitus.

Health promotion

A number of genres have to be included in the health promotion program so that all the negative aspects of the aboriginals in their self-health management can be identified and accordingly modified.
Therefore, the health promotion would be mainly based on the health belief model (Lyons et al., 2014)
The health belief model will mainly focus on the three important aspects. This would be based on education, lifestyle modifications, and proper management of the disorder.

Health belief model
The Health belief model is seen to have five important aspects that need to be covered in the health promotion program;

Gathering important information by effective conduction of the health needs assessments
To properly convey consequences about the issues regarding the health which are associated with the risky behaviors to the target population (Lyons et al., 2014)
Properly conducting of effective communication to the target population of the different steps which are to be involved in order to take effective recommended action and then highlighting the benefits of action
To provide proper assistance to the individuals by properly identifying as well as reducing the barriers of action
Proper demonstration of the actions by proper skills development activities
Providing support that will help to enhance self-efficacy as well as likelihood of proper successful behavioral changes

Therefore, all the above mentioned principle will be followed in ways by which the healthy habit changes can be made among the target population

Education as the first priority in the health promotion program 

Education is one of the most important techniques that can be applied for prevention of diabetes among the indigenous people (Gauci et al., 2017)
Education would help in the raising of the awareness of the different risk factors of diabetes and also the consequences that result from the diabetes in the individuals

Best approach to educate the target population 

Best approach to educate the target population;
Researchers are of the opinion that Intervention programs which influence the early year education can be suitable for development of knowledge about the nutritional status that is important for maintaining health lifestyles
This intervention of the health promotion program would be targeted to the non-indigenous children and the adults.
This is believed to be important, as it would help in prevention of the risk factors for diabetes in the later portions of their lives.
Different interesting programs which are school based education programs would be developed for school children as well as adolescents (Adegbija, 2016)

Lifestyle modifications 

Intensive lifestyle programs would be introduced in a community based manner so that all the issues with their poor health habits and poor health hygiene can be attended (Davis et al., 2015).
The programs which should be developed should be culturally appropriate as well as locally supported and should be targeted prevention programs

lifestyle modification program 

The lifestyle modification program would be mainly attending to three important aspects. These are the excess weight gain and weight management issues, improper knowledge of diet planning and diet intake and physical inactivity.
The program would provide the participants withProper life skillsProper knowledge (Adegbija, 2016)Proper support to make appropriate sustainable life changes
Appropriate measurements are to be taken the health promotion representatives in order to support the population and help them live a sustainable life.
Development of proper stores and through community gardens and traditional food projects
This would help to increase availability as well as access of health food to the target people.
To make healthy food cheaper
Limited advertising of unhealthy food (Davis et al., 2015)
Encouragement of physical activities by proper partnerships with community councils

Effective management 

Effective as well as appropriate diabetes management should be advocated in the health promotion programs to make them develop the habit of visiting healthcare centers for regular checkups (Davis et al., 2015).
Coordinated interaction among the members of the community to learn about their concerns and issues and accordingly develop interventions for them.

Diabetes management program

Diabetes management program mainly includes the following activities in the health promotion program;
The cohort should be advised to seek for earlier detection of undiagnosed diabetes
Seek for primary health care services influencing them that culturally safe care is the foundation of the services in the modern generation (Adegbija, Hoy & Wang, 2015)
Providing them with the roper lost of medications that they can uptake
Self management education needs to be given
Tertiary specialist treatment should be taken for when complications arise

All the mentioned strategies would help in

Improvement in the understanding of the different chronic conditions and their management
Active participation, greater control and involvement in management of their own health
Ability to set and achieve realistic personal goals (Hays et al., 2015)
Ideas of seeking intervention early when affected by disorder
Proper monitoring of progress


Adegbija, O. (2016). Waist circumference and risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality among Aboriginal adults in an Australian community.
Adegbija, O., Hoy, W., & Wang, Z. (2015). Predicting absolute risk of type 2 diabetes using age and waist circumference values in an aboriginal Australian community. PloS one, 10(4), e0123788.
Davis, T. M., Hunt, K., Bruce, D. G., Starkstein, S., Skinner, T., McAullay, D., & Davis, W. A. (2015). Prevalence of depression and its associations with cardio-metabolic control in Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 107(3), 384-391.
Gauci, R., Hunter, M., Bruce, D. G., Davis, W. A., & Davis, T. M. (2017). Anemia complicating type 2 diabetes: Prevalence, risk factors and prognosis. Journal of diabetes and its complications, 31(7), 1169-1174.
Hays, R., Esterman, A., & McDermott, R. (2015). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis treatment failure in Australian aboriginals. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 9(8), e0003976.
Lyons, K. J., Ezekowitz, J. A., Liu, W., McAlister, F. A., & Kaul, P. (2014). Mortality outcomes among status Aboriginals and whites with heart failure. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 30(6), 619-626.
Nilashi, M., Bin Ibrahim, O., Mardani, A., Ahani, A., & Jusoh, A. (2016). A soft computing approach for diabetes disease classification. Health Informatics Journal, 1460458216675500.

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