Blog

Home / Blog / Single Post

401210 Health Variations

Free Samples

401210 Health Variations

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

401210 Health Variations

0 Download10 Pages / 2,399 Words

Course Code: 401210
University: Western Sydney University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Question:
Case study
Jackson Smith, a 18 year-old male, was admitted to the Emergency Department at 9pm with severe breathless- ness. His family informed you that the patient has a history of Asthma that had been diagnosed when he was two years old. On admission to the Emergency Department the clinical manifestations were:

Severe dyspnoea, inability to speak sentences in one breath
Respiratory rate of 32 breaths/minute
SpO2 90%, on room air
BP 150/85 mmHg
Pulse rate of 130 beats/minute
Auscultation of lungs identifies diminished breath sounds and widespread wheeze

A chest x-ray was performed and showed a clear and hyper-inflated lung fields.
A blood gas was taken:
pH : 7.35
PaO2: 60mmHg PaCO2: 50mmHg HCO3: 25mEq/L
Lactate: 1
SaO2 90%
A diagnosis of Acute Severe Asthma was made.
Question 
1. Explain the pathogenesis causing the clinical manifestations with which Jackson Smith presented with.
2. Discuss two high priority nursing strategies to manage Jackson and provide evidence-based rationales for these strate- gies.
3. Three of the drugs that were given to Jackson were continuous nebulised Salbutamol and nebulised Ipratropium bromide (4/24) and IV Hydrocortisone 100mg (6/24).
a) Discuss the mechanism of action of these drugs, and relate to the underlying pathogenesis of an Acute Severe And,
b) Describe the nursing implications (monitoring for and responding to adverse effects, and evaluating therapeutic effect) when administering these drugs to a patient with an Acute Severe Asthma.
When answering questions:

Responses are to use full sentences, paragraphs, correct spelling and
The word limit for the guided questions is 1250 Use your computer to total the number of words used. In-text citations will be included in the additional 10% of the word count. If you exceed the word limit by more than 10% the marker will stop marking.
Provide a reference list in APA 6th Edition style with a minimum of 6 academic references which could include journal articles, textbooks, government websites and reports, and creditable organisational websites (such as the Agency for Clinical Innovation (https://www.aci.health.nsw.gov.au/).
Appropriate resources must be selected and accurately The cited references must support your discussion or explanation.
Ensure that your concept map and guided questions are one document to upload through

Resources:

Examples may be available on the vUWS
There are a number of textbooks and resources available through the Western Sydney University Library that may assist you. Please refer to the unit’s vUWS site for specific unit

Answer:

References:
Chung, K. F., Wenzel, S. E., Brozek, J. L., Bush, A., Castro, M., Sterk, P. J., … & Boulet, L. P. (2014). International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. European respiratory journal, 43(2), 343-373. doi:1183/09031936.00202013
 
Apter, A. J. (2014). Advances in adult asthma diagnosis and treatment in 2013. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133(1), 49-56. Apter, A. J. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.005
 
Teo, S. M., Mok, D., Pham, K., Kusel, M., Serralha, M., Troy, N., … & Bochkov, Y. A. (2015). The infant nasopharyngeal microbiome impacts severity of lower respiratory infection and risk of asthma development. Cell host & microbe, 17(5), 704-715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2015.03.008
 
Griffiths, B., & Ducharme, F. M. (2013). Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children. Paediatric respiratory reviews, 14(4), 234-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2013.08.002
 
Miguel-Montanes, R., Hajage, D., Messika, J., Bertrand, F., Gaudry, S., Rafat, C., … & Dreyfuss, D. (2015). Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy to prevent desaturation during tracheal intubation of intensive care patients with mild-to-moderate hypoxemia. Critical care medicine, 43(3), 574-583. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000743
 
Nievas, I. F. F., & Anand, K. J. (2013). Severe acute asthma exacerbation in children: a stepwise approach for escalating therapy in a pediatric intensive care unit. The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics, 18(2), 88-104. https://doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-18.2.88
 
Des Jardins, T., & Burton, G. G. (2015). Clinical Manifestations & Assessment of Respiratory Disease-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 7th https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PjQwBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Des+Jardins,+T.,+%26+Burton,+G.+G.+(2015).+Clinical+Manifestations+%26+Assessment+of+Respiratory+Disease-E-Book.+Elsevier+Health+Sciences.&ots=f7QZzBcZLI&sig=p4yk9_-2ssTxxVFjcnaIA1tsUys#v=onepage&q=Des%20Jardins%2C%20T.%2C%20%26%20Burton%2C%20G.%20G.%20(2015).%20Clinical%20Manifestations%20%26%20Assessment%20of%20Respiratory%20Disease-E-Book.%20Elsevier%20Health%20Sciences.&f=false
 
Grosso, A., Locatelli, F., Gini, E., Albicini, F., Tirelli, C., Cerveri, I., & Corsico, A. G. (2018). The course of asthma during pregnancy in a recent, multicase–control study on respiratory health. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0242-0
 
Fergeson, J. E., Patel, S. S., & Lockey, R. F. (2017). Acute asthma, prognosis, and treatment. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(2), 438-447. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.06.054.
 
Feldman, A. S., He, Y., Moore, M. L., Hershenson, M. B., & Hartert, T. V. (2015). Toward primary prevention of asthma. Reviewing the evidence for early-life respiratory viral infections as modifiable risk factors to prevent childhood asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 191(1), 34-44. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201405-0901PP
1: Pathophysiology
One of the most prevalent obstructive lung diseases in Australia is asthma. Nearly about 10.2% people in Australia suffer from asthma (Chung et al., 2014). It has been found that indigenous population is more vulnerable to asthma as compare to the non-indigenous population, thus, rate of hospitalisation and mortality rate is also high due to asthma in this population (National Asthma Council of Australia (2015). Asthma is defined as the chronic inflammatory disease of lungs and it is characterised as the development of hyperresponsiveness and bronchospam which lead to the consequence of wheezing, coughing and breathlessness. Such clinical manifestation of asthma may create minimum nuisance in some non-acute cases, however, in severe cases it may lead to life threatening situation. Asthma is may be induced by some environmental factors such as allergic reaction to pollens, air pollutants, pet dander, exposure to chemicals and others (Feldman et al., 2015). On the other hand the illness may occur due to the interaction of several genes. Asthma has been found to be atopic in most of the cases. In such cases the clinical manifestations develops due to the personal or familial potentiality to produce IgE which interacts with the low doses of allergens and develops symptoms of atopic asthma and other allergic disorders as well (Teo et al., 2015). It has been reported that, asthma cannot be cured completely, especially the severe acute asthma. Nevertheless the clinical manifestations could be managed with effective nursing management and care plans. However, it is difficult to manage severe acute asthma with even with pharmacological treatment (Apter, 2014).
In the given scenario, the patient Jackson Smith has been found to be diagnosed with asthma in childhood and at the age of 18 years he has been admitted to the emergency department with the clinical manifestation of severe breathing problem or dyspnoea. Dyspnoea has been considered as the one of the common suffering during asthma attack (Des Jardins & Burton, 2015). In case of asthma the airways of lungs become narrow and swelling and tightening of muscle develops. On the other hand, the lungs produce excessive mucus. Such consequences develop because the high production of IgE results in the binding of allergens with the IgE in the mucosal lining containing sensitized mast cells (Fergeson, Patel & Lockey, 2017). Such condition results in the releasing of various inflammatory mediators for example, prostaglandins, interleukins, leukotrienes and histamine. Excessive release of such inflammatory mediators leads to the constriction of smooth muscle, hence tightening and swelling of muscles occur. Additionally, the constriction of smooth muscle results in the increasing vascular permeability which leads to high secretion of mucus. Such condition causes problem in breathing as the air becomes trapped in the narrow air passages (Des Jardins & Burton, 2015).
In addition the auscultation has indicated presence of diminished breath sound and wide spread wheeze. As mentioned before that in case of asthma constriction of smooth muscle occurs which leads to the narrow airways of lungs. When air moves through such narrow and constricted air passage, vibration occur which results in wheezing (Feldman et al., 2015). The assessment of vital sign of the patient has indicated high blood pressure (150/85 mmHg) and high respiratory rate such as 32 breaths per minute. Further the blood gas test has reported about low partial pressure of oxygen which is 60 mmHg whereas the normal range is 75-100 mmHg and high partial pressure of carbon dioxide such as 50 mmHg, whereas the normal range is 38-42 mmHg. Hence, poor oxygen intake has been identified (Fergeson, Patel & Lockey, 2017). On the other hand, the chest x-ray report has indicated the presence of hyper-inflated lungs as well. Due to the narrowing of airways the air trapped behind the air passages, hence the air could enter the lungs but it becomes difficult to expel the inhaled air. Such condition leads to the consequence of hyper-inflated lungs (Des Jardins & Burton, 2015). In case of poor oxygen intake results in mismatch of ventilation and perfusion which leads to the development of hypoxemia. In such condition the heart needs to work harder in order to compensate and overcome the tension which leads to elevation of BP and respiratory rate (Feldman et al., 2015).  Hence, the patient needs to guide with proper nursing management to cope up with the current severe condition.
2: Nursing strategies:
In order to help Jackson to manage the symptoms of severe acute asthma it is important to introduce effective nursing strategies. The patient has been found to be suffering from severe dyspnoea or breathlessness and due to poor oxygen intake consequence of hypoxemia may be developed. In such cases oxygen therapy is the most relevant nursing strategy in order to reduce such complications (Miguel-Montanes et al., 2015). In this regards it is important to provide adequate amount of oxygen in order to meet the oxygen requirement of the patient. Research has recommended that oxygen could be administered through mask or nasal cannula based on the comfort level of the patient. If nasal cannula is used to provide the oxygen therapy it is required to provide 1-6 LPM oxygen while maintaining the flow of oxygen at 4% per litter. On the other hand, if mask is used for oxygen therapy 5-8 LPM oxygen needs to be provided and the flow of oxygen should same as nasal cannula (4% per litter) (Mayfield et al., 2014). Such nursing strategy would help to reduce the complication associated with breathlessness in an effective manner.
Another important factor in case of Jackson is the increase in BP and respiratory rate due to high struggle of heart. Hence, it is required to facilitate the ventilation in order to help the patient to reduce the muscular fatigue and reduce the BP and respiratory rate to a normal range. In this regards the non-invasive ventilation would be helpful as per the recommendation of research (Alves et al., 2014). The process aims to improve the functional residual capacity hence, reduces the struggle for breathing. Air trapping is one of the most common issues during asthma attack. In this case inspiratory pressure support which is provided through PEEP helps to reduce the effort for breathing. Such process helps to reduce the complications due to poor alveolar ventilation (Nanchal et al., 2014).  Effective ventilation and oxygen therapy would help the patient to manage his situation in a better manner.
3: Mode of action of drugs:
Salbutamol: Salbutamol is one of the effective drugs that the physicians recommend for a patient with asthma. The drug binds actively with the beta-2-adrenoreceptors of the smooth muscle on bronchi and stabilizes the receptors in an effective manner. Hence, open up the blocked air ways in the lungs. Such activity of the drug helps to relief the symptom of asthma such as breathlessness, wheezing and coughing (Nievas & Anand, 2013).
Ipratropium bromide: Ipratropium bromide is another recommended drug which effectively reliefs the complications during asthma attack. Acetylcholine is a potential factor that triggers the allergic reaction during asthma and contributes to the consequence of narrow air passages in lungs. The drug has anti-cholinergic activity which helps to reduce the effect of acetylcholine, hence, improves the condition of the patient in an effective manner (Griffiths & Ducharme, 2013).
IV hydrocortisone: High production of IgE is associated with the release of inflammatory mediator which leads to the constriction of smooth muscle and narrowing of airways. The drug hydrocortisone has the anti-inflammatory action. It binds with the serum albumin and corticosteroid binding globulin, hence, enhances the binding of free cortisol with receptors and inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, helps in reducing the complications associated with inflammation of lungs (Nievas & Anand, 2013).
In addition to such effectiveness of these drugs, there are some side effects of these drugs as well which may lead to adverse events. For example, Ipratropium bromide may cause increase the breathing issue and dry mouth, in contrast, Salbutamol may lead to the consequence of chest pain, rapid heartbeat and headache (Griffiths & Ducharme, 2013). On the other hand, hydrocortisone may cause high BP, nausea, vomiting and depression. Hence it is important to provide proper doses of these drugs to the patient and monitor the patient in order to identify any adverse effect, so that adequate measure could be taken to manage such condition. Such awareness while administering the drugs would help to avoid medical error (Nievas & Anand, 2013).
References:
Alves, D., Freitas, A. S., Jacinto, T., Vaz, M. S., Lopes, F. O., & Fonseca, J. A. (2014). Increasing use of non-invasive ventilation in asthma: a long-term analysis of the Portuguese national hospitalization database. Journal of Asthma, 51(10), 1068-1075. https://doi.org/10.3109/02770903.2014.939280
Apter, A. J. (2014). Advances in adult asthma diagnosis and treatment in 2013. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 133(1), 49-56. Apter, A. J. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.005
Chung, K. F., Wenzel, S. E., Brozek, J. L., Bush, A., Castro, M., Sterk, P. J., … & Boulet, L. P. (2014). International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. European respiratory journal, 43(2), 343-373. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00202013
Des Jardins, T., & Burton, G. G. (2015). Clinical Manifestations & Assessment of Respiratory Disease-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 7th edition. https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PjQwBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Des+Jardins,+T.,+%26+Burton,+G.+G.+(2015).+Clinical+Manifestations+%26+Assessment+of+Respiratory+Disease-E-Book.+Elsevier+Health+Sciences.&ots=f7QZzBcZLI&sig=p4yk9_-2ssTxxVFjcnaIA1tsUys#v=onepage&q=Des%20Jardins%2C%20T.%2C%20%26%20Burton%2C%20G.%20G.%20(2015).%20Clinical%20Manifestations%20%26%20Assessment%20of%20Respiratory%20Disease-E-Book.%20Elsevier%20Health%20Sciences.&f=false
Feldman, A. S., He, Y., Moore, M. L., Hershenson, M. B., & Hartert, T. V. (2015). Toward primary prevention of asthma. Reviewing the evidence for early-life respiratory viral infections as modifiable risk factors to prevent childhood asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 191(1), 34-44. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201405-0901PP
Fergeson, J. E., Patel, S. S., & Lockey, R. F. (2017). Acute asthma, prognosis, and treatment. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(2), 438-447. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.06.054.
Griffiths, B., & Ducharme, F. M. (2013). Combined inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists for initial treatment of acute asthma in children. Paediatric respiratory reviews, 14(4), 234-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2013.08.002
Grosso, A., Locatelli, F., Gini, E., Albicini, F., Tirelli, C., Cerveri, I., & Corsico, A. G. (2018). The course of asthma during pregnancy in a recent, multicase–control study on respiratory health. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0242-0
Mayfield, S., Bogossian, F., O’Malley, L., & Schibler, A. (2014). High?flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: pilot study. Journal of paediatrics and child health, 50(5), 373-378. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.12509
Miguel-Montanes, R., Hajage, D., Messika, J., Bertrand, F., Gaudry, S., Rafat, C., … & Dreyfuss, D. (2015). Use of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy to prevent desaturation during tracheal intubation of intensive care patients with mild-to-moderate hypoxemia. Critical care medicine, 43(3), 574-583. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000743
Nanchal, R., Kumar, G., Majumdar, T., Taneja, A., Patel, J., Dagar, G., … & Whittle, J. (2014). Utilization of mechanical ventilation for asthma exacerbations: analysis of a national database. Respiratory care, 59(5), 644-653. DOI: 10.4187/respcare.02505
National Asthma Council of Australia (2015). Australian asthma handbook. Retrieved from: https://www.asthmahandbook.org.au/download-order
Nievas, I. F. F., & Anand, K. J. (2013). Severe acute asthma exacerbation in children: a stepwise approach for escalating therapy in a pediatric intensive care unit. The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics, 18(2), 88-104. https://doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-18.2.88
Teo, S. M., Mok, D., Pham, K., Kusel, M., Serralha, M., Troy, N., … & Bochkov, Y. A. (2015). The infant nasopharyngeal microbiome impacts severity of lower respiratory infection and risk of asthma development. Cell host & microbe, 17(5), 704-715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2015.03.008

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.

E-mail

Yes, alert me for offers and important updates

Submit 

Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 10 pages

PAY 6 USD TO DOWNLOAD

*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as
unique.

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

APA
MLA
Harvard
OSCOLA
Vancouver

My Assignment Help. (2020). Health Variations. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/401210-health-variations/chronic-conditions.html.

“Health Variations.” My Assignment Help, 2020, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/401210-health-variations/chronic-conditions.html.

My Assignment Help (2020) Health Variations [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/401210-health-variations/chronic-conditions.html[Accessed 18 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘Health Variations’ (My Assignment Help, 2020) accessed 18 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. Health Variations [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 18 December 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/401210-health-variations/chronic-conditions.html.

×
.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}

×

Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id

×

CONGRATS!
$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1
month.

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.

User:

Password:

MyAssignmenthelp.com has assembled a team of extraordinarily talented and knowledgeable PhD qualified online dissertation experts to provide students required dissertation writing help in Canberra, Adelaide, Perth, Melbourne, Sydney and other parts of Australia. Students can buy dissertation online from us with three simple steps. Auditing dissertation help, history dissertation help, geography dissertation help, maths dissertation help are few popular services under our dissertation writing assistance.

Latest Healthcare Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;
}

5N1794 Safety And Health At Work
Download :
0 | Pages :
13

Course Code: 5N1794
University: University College Cork

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Ireland

Answer:
Assignment 1
Answer to question 1
I have conducted a survey at my workplace maned Lady’s Hospice and Care Services to observe the working environment. The aim of the survey is to find if it is a safe, healthy, secured and fulfilling place to work. A visual survey was conducted to locate and record the safety signs in the workplace. The objective of the survey is to observe and list different types of signs, location, their prom…
Read
More
Tags:
Australia Maple Ridge Management Introduction to film studies University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

400837 Health And Socio Political Issues In Aged Care
Download :
0 | Pages :
14

Course Code: 400837
University: Western Sydney University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Answers:
Introduction
Palliative care services are designed to improve the life of patient with progressive disease. People receiving palliative care have illness that has no prospect of cure.  As per the World Health Organisation, palliative care is a care given to patient suffering from life threatening illness to improve their quality of life by preventing and providing relief from sufferings by early recognition , assessment and trea…
Read
More
Tags:
Australia Minchinbury Management University of New South Wales 

PUBH6304 Global Health
Download :
0 | Pages :
8

Course Code: PUBH6304
University: The University Of Newcastle

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Answers:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is the spectrum of medical conditions caused due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following which the patient suffers from a series medical complications due to suppression of the immune system of the body. With the progression of the disease, the patient is likely to suffer from a wide range of infections like tuberculosis and other opportu…
Read
More
Tags:
United States Newark Management University of New York Masters in Business Administration 

CON 321 Health Related Research
Download :
0 | Pages :
3

Course Code: CON321
University: University Of Southern Maine

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Answer:
Introduction
Leadership in the hospital is the ability to influence the staff toward providing quality health care. Leadership involves influencing human behavior to create a positive working environment (Langlois, 2012). Good leadership enables healthy relationships among staffs in the hospital enhancing quality delivery of health care services. Leadership is responsible to building teams that have trust, respect, support and effecti…
Read
More

BL9412 Public Health
Download :
0 | Pages :
35

Course Code: BL9412
University: University Of The West Of England

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Answer:
Introduction
According to the researchers, it can be said that the management of the health care organizations has become a difficult task nowadays and the reason behind this is the occurrence of various issues in this sector (Hall et al., 2014). Therefore, the administrative employees of the organization should incorporate various revolutionized strategies for enriching the worth of care provided by the hospital to its clients and re…
Read
More
Tags:
Australia Ryde Management Information system strategy University of New South Wales (UNSW) Masters in Business Administration 

Next

Tips and Tricks from our Blog