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7881MED Health Program Planning And Implementation

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7881MED Health Program Planning And Implementation

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7881MED Health Program Planning And Implementation

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Course Code: 7881MED
University: Griffith University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

1. Health Promotion is a dynamic approach to improving population health through addressing the interrelated determinants of health across various settings. What strategies are needed to ensure the effectiveness of health promotion? What are the potential barriers for health promotion program?
2. To develop or implement a health plan in an effective and systematic manner, we inevitably have to deal with the issues of concern, the people involved, and the settings wherein people conduct their activities. Thus, issues, population, and settings should be the three cornerstones of any health plan. Please explain more details about issues, population, and setting approach of health promotion and provide the examples for each of them. 3. Explain why community needs assessment is recognised as being a critical undertaking for the successful planning and implementation of health promotion programs. Describe the types of needs, how to collect them, and provide some examples for each type. Why do you think collecting all types of needs is important for health program planning?4. Pick one particular health issue (e.g. obesity, smoking, dengue, maternal mortality, etc) in one particular country/setting. Critically evaluate the planning and implementation of health promotion or health program/intervention and analyse the gaps.

Q.1What tactics are needed to ensure the efficiency of health promotion. What are the possible barriers for health promotion plans?
Ans. Health promotion is the procedure of empowering individuals to raise control over, and to enhance their wellbeing. It exchanges beyond an attention on the performance of individuals towards an extensive variety of environmental and social interferences. It not only holds actions focussed at strengthening the skills and abilities of individual’s but also towards political, social, economic, and environmental conditions to ease their impact on individual health and population (Eldredge, Markham, Ruiter, Kok & Parcel, 2016).
Strategies for effectiveness of health promotion-


Advocate is a combination of individual and social activities designed to increase political assurance, social recognition, political sustenance, and systems support for a specific health objective or plan. It is one of the three main strategies for health promotion and can take numerous forms including the utilization of community mobilization, mass media and multi-media and coordinate political campaigning, for instance, alliances of interest around characterized issues. Health experts have a major obligation to act as advocates’ for health in society. Health promotion activity aims at making these situations favourable through advocacy for health.
In health promotion, enabling means association with people or groups to enable them, through the assembly of material and human assets, to protect and promote their health. Health promotions give emphasis on accomplishing fairness in health. It aims at decreasing conflicts in current health eminence and safeguarding equal resources and chances to empower all entities to accomplish their full being prospective. This incorporates a secure establishment in a supportive environment, life skills, opportunities, and access to data for making sound decisions (Sallis, Franklin, Joy, Ross, Sabgir & Stone, 2015).
The prospects and prerequisites for health cannot be guaranteed by the health sector. All the more vitally, health promotion advanced coordinated action by all concerned: by a nongovernmental and voluntary organization, by governments, by local authorities, by health and other economic and social sectors and by the media Professional and social groups have the main responsibility to mediate amid divergent benefits in society for the pursuit of wellbeing.
Potential barriers to health promotion program-

Social and cultural norms encompassing health practices;
Low wellbeing proficiency stages and inadequate perception of health;
Educational and linguistic differences;
Limited reasonable, consistent, or communal transportation alternatives;
Unforeseeable work hours or unemployment;
Lower inhabitants’ concentrations for program economies of balance scope;
Higher deficiency charges, which can make it hard for contributors to pay for administration or projects(Fertman & Allensworth, 2016).

Q.2 Explain the issues of concern, the people involved, and the settings approach of health advancement and provide examples for each of them.
Ans. People involved, issues, and settings are the three keystones of any health plan. The issues of concern in health promotion are-
Issues are associated to encroaching on individual ‘security, interrupting with their entitlement to liberty of choice and self-sufficiency for the consideration of encouraging the health of people or humanity as a whole. Health promotion interferences raise concerns with respect to unfair or unequal provision or treatment of services, mentioned to as distributive, and equity impartiality, which develops to incorporate unequal delivery of burdens or risk or of rational chances to attain health objectives. For example, communication intervention may serve to widen communal gaps when primarily the individuals who are had better off assistance from these mediations (Edelman, Mandle & Kudzma, 2017).
People involved in health promotion

Individuals, families and communities- They increase health proficiency through broad communication education campaign; providing correspondence and negotiation skills that prompt to meaningful contribution in decision-making; and access to health records. They improver the capacity for self-care and self-management, for example, provide expressly written guidelines about taking prescribed medicines.
Patients- They has appropriate data in regards to the treatment and diagnosis is essential for giving protected and quality services.
Health Practitioners- They deliver health care that is approachable to the preferences, needs, and expectations of individuals retrieving health services. They increase the dimensions of compassionate and holistic care. They enrich commitment to safe, quality, and ethical services by support and recognition for clinical instructors who embrace humanism and professionalism in health services through dynamic methods of instruction (Davis, Carter, Myers & Rocca, 2018).

Settings approach to health promotion
The World Health Organization (WHO) characterizes a setting as “the social setting in which individually involve in day-to-day events in which personal, organizational, and environmental issues communicate to affect wellbeing and prosperity”. The setting approach to health promotion considers the numerous, interactive components that make up an entire framework and adopts interventions that coordinate these components to limit risk factors and conditions that contribute to illness. The objective of the setting approach is to create a helpful environment for optimal health. The model’s key standard includes partnership, flexibility, empowerment, community participation, and equity. For example, since higher scholastic achievement or a positive state of mind are related to positive health practices (Baum & Fisher, 2014).
Q.3 Explain why the community needs determination is perceived as being a critical responsibility for the successful planning and implementation of health promotion plan. Illustrate the types of needs, how to gather them, and deliver some examples of each category?
Ans. Community need assessment is documented as a critical responsibility for the successful planning and implementation of health advancement programs as it enables to plan and deliver the utmost effective care to those who are in greatest need. They apply the standards of value and social justice in practice by ensuring that scarce assets are distributed where they can give supreme health advantage. They work supportively with the community, agencies and other specialists to decide which health matters cause the highest apprehension and plan interference to address those matters. Consumerism is the important factor in which the desires of a member from general society have led to greatest concerns about the nature of the services they receive from access and value viability and appropriateness (Alley, Asomugha, Conway & Sanghavi, 2016).
Types of needs

Felt needs- These are what individuals “feel” or their needs. They just are the sentiments of the individual people or wants to be shared by the majority of people or groups in the community. Felt needs might be expressed casually within the community. It is the belief of the individual about the degree and nature of the health issues, their causes and potential outcomes for prevention and cure, for ex., a housing unit getting a good private market standard.
Express needs- These are needs that have been stimulated from the level of being felt to that of being conveyed to the attention of specialists at various levels (expressed) by demands, petitions, complaints etc. These needs have been stood up or expressed in writing, for ex. Individual performance file and performance review.
Agency /organisation determine needs- These are the results of decisions originating from external organization to the community. Organizational determined needs are what outside associations. For example, department of community development, the ministry of health etc. (Koyio, Ranganathan, Kattappagari, Williams & Robinson, 2016).

How to collect needs
Felt needs can be collected by promoting active participation and providing financial assistance so that it contributes expressively to the achievement of community development determinations.
Express needs can be collected by a number of individuals who have sought support and focusses on situations where feelings are interpreted into action.
Organization determine needs are collected by performing a staffing assessment and implement the workforce plan.
Collecting needs are important for health program planning because it provides a method of promoting and monitoring equity in the practice of health services and addressing disparities in health. This help in collecting original information, transferring, or adapting, or transferring what is already available (Goetzel, Henke, Tabrizi, Pelletier, Loeppke, Ballard & Serxner, 2014).
Q.4 Pick one health problem in one particular country and unfavourably assess the planning and implementation of health promotion, and analyse the gaps?
Ans. Smoking remains the main preventable reason for death and sickness in Australia. It leads to an extensive variety of diseases including numerous types of heart disease, lung and chest illness, cancer and stomach ulcers.
Planning of health promotion is to be done to increase the awareness of the risk of smoking and benefits of quitting. They should encourage customers to quit as it is not a good habit and can impact on family, communities as well as society. They should target those customers who are suffering from respiratory diseases such as asthma, other diseases etc.  A campaign should be developed to a steady reduction in smoking. As the Australian government allotted research reserves towards regaining and develop the anti-smoking campaign. They should ensure access to brief intervention training which continues to be provided to them. They should monitor the databases to know about the smoking status (Wheeler, Roennfeldt, Slattery, Krinks & Stewart, 2018).
Health program intervention is actions engaged to accomplish the program objectives. It includes –

Awareness through school programmes is done to aware young people to stop smoking,
Increasing price through excise tax increases as this can control their consumption,
Large graphic cautioning labels on packages which help him to reduce their consumption.
Limiting the industry to advertise such products which are injurious to health,
Anti-smoking control mass media programmes in all over society and community,
Smoke-free policies should be conducted which condenses the likelihood of a teenager becoming a consistent smoker,
Limiting the minors from obtaining tobacco products and enforcement of such laws should be levied as teens thought that it is easy to get cigarettes so these laws would influence them (Sallis, Owen & Fisher, 2015).

In Australia, community-wide programmes using multiple strategies have documented a large decline in smoking initiation.
Gap analysis
The extent of Indigenous individuals aged 18 years and over who smoke has diminished expressively, from 55 per cent to 45 per cent. Australia is on track to eradicate public health issue by 2020. The pervasiveness of active trachoma in indigenous youngsters aged 5-9 years in danger fell from 14 per cent to 4.7 per cent in 2016 (Carroll, Labarthe, Huffman & Hitsman, 2016).
Alley, D. E., Asomugha, C. N., Conway, P. H., & Sanghavi, D. M. (2016). Accountable health communities—addressing social needs through Medicare and Medicaid. N Engl J Med, 374(1), 8-11.
Baum, F., & Fisher, M. (2014). Why behavioural health promotion endures despite its failure to reduce health inequities. Sociology of health & illness, 36(2), 213-225.
Carroll, A. J., Labarthe, D. R., Huffman, M. D., & Hitsman, B. (2016). Global tobacco prevention and control in relation to a cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention framework: A narrative review. Preventive medicine, 93, 189-197.
Davis, K., Carter, S., Myers, E., & Rocca, N. (2018). Health promotion for young people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. Nursing children and young people, 30(1), 28-34.
Edelman, C. L., Mandle, C. L., & Kudzma, E. C. (2017). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span-E-Book (9th Ed.). China: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Eldredge, L. K. B., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A., Kok, G., & Parcel, G. S. (2016). Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach (4th Ed.). U.S.A: John Wiley & Sons.
Fertman, C. I., & Allensworth, D. D. (2016). Health promotion programs: from theory to practice (2nd Ed.). U.S.A: John Wiley & Sons.
Goetzel, R. Z., Henke, R. M., Tabrizi, M., Pelletier, K. R., Loeppke, R., Ballard, D. W., … & Serxner, S. (2014). Do workplace health promotion (wellness) programs work? Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(9), 927-934.
Koyio, L., Ranganathan, K., Kattappagari, K. K., Williams, D. M., & Robinson, P. G. (2016). Oral health needs assessment world?wide in relation to HIV. Themes: Oral health needs and inequalities, oral health promotion, co?ordinating research and enhancing dissemination in relation to HIV?a workshop report. Oral diseases, 22, 199-205.
Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., & Fisher, E. (2015). Ecological models of health behavior. Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice, 5, 43-64.
Sallis, R., Franklin, B., Joy, L., Ross, R., Sabgir, D., & Stone, J. (2015). Strategies for promoting physical activity in clinical practice. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 57(4), 375-386.
Wheeler, A. J., Roennfeldt, H., Slattery, M., Krinks, R., & Stewart, V. (2018). Codesigned recommendations for increasing engagement in structured physical activity for people with serious mental health problems in Australia. Health & social care in the community.

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