A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
Running head: Effect of Traumatic Life Events on OCD A Study of Traumatic Life Events in Link with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder A Study of Traumatic Life Events in Link with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD, as defined by the National Institute of Mental Health is an anxiety disorder that is distinguished by persistent, unwanted thoughts and/or compulsions (“NIMH,” 2007). OCD is one of the most expensive and persistent forms of psychopathology. Although OCD has been thought of as a fairly rare disorder, recent studies have found that 1. – 4% of the population has some form of OCD. While the understanding of this disease has been expanded over the past few decades there still remains much to be learned about the causes and origin of the disease. One factor that is thought to contribute to the onset or intensification of most psychiatric disorders is stressful life events especially traumatic life events (Cromer, Schmidt, & Murphy, 2006, p. 2). However there has not been significant research on the relationship of stressful life events or traumatic life events with OCD. A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
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This study attempts to examine the potential correlations between traumatic life events and OCD, if any at all are present (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 3-4). Method A total of 265 participants, being at least eighteen years of age, all with some degree of OCD as their primary disease, participated in this study. Patients with schizophrenia, severe mental retardation, or currently depressed individuals were excluded from this study. The participants were interviewed and tested using four different methods.
These methods included the Structured Clinical Interview with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID), the Yale-Brown Excessive Compulsive scale (Y-BOCS), a traumatic life event measure, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The SCID interview was carried out by a trained, as well as experienced, interviewer. Two independent doctors then reviewed the results before making their final blind diagnosis. The Y-BOCS measured how severe each participant’s OCD symptoms were in each of the four areas. These areas ncorporated hoarding, ordering/symmetry, checking/obsessions, and cleaning/contamination (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 4). The traumatic life event measure was in an interview-like setting, where the participants were given descriptions of various traumatic life events. After each description the participants were asked various questions about their own experiences with similar events. If the participant was still troubled by any of the events the interviewer would continue with a posttraumatic stress disorder test, regardless if the participant met the qualifications for posttraumatic stress disorder. A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
This was done in order to make sure that all traumatic life events were documented properly. The final test was the Beck Depression Inventory which, through a full set of twenty-one questions, determines whether or not a person is currently depressed and the severity of their depression (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 5). Results Out of the 265 patients who participated in this study, 143 of them (roughly 54%) had experienced at least one traumatic life event at the time of the study (Cromer, et al. 2006, p. 1). If more than one event encountered, the participant suffered an increase in the severity of their OCD symptoms. These results remained consistent even when crucial variables, such as age, presence of depression, and the age OCD first began were controlled. Of the four symptoms of OCD that were tested for ordering/symmetry and checking/obsessions were found to have the closest correlation with the presence of traumatic life events (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 5). Discussion
The results of this study largely support the fact that the symptoms of OCD are intensified by the onset of traumatic life events (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 1). However the researchers believe that there still needs to be testing done to clarify the link between OCD and traumatic life events as there may be confounding variables creating false positives. For example, there is a chance that some of the symptoms (ordering/symmetry and checking/obsessions in particular) are linked to other mood and anxiety disorders which could be the cause of the higher correlation in the study (Cromer, et al. 2006, p. 9). To improve on this there would have to be a study done to observe how those symptoms react with other disorders. The traumatic life event data that was collected was based off what the patients could remember from the past. This suggests that this particular data is not entirely accurate. The strength in their research, however, is how the SCID test was performed. Not only were there professional interviewers, their work was double checked by two independent doctors to insure the utmost accuracy.
The participants were tested and interviewed in four different ways to accumulate more data to create a more accurate experiment (Cromer, et al. , 2006, p. 4). There is something that the researchers mention that I do not entirely agree with however. Cromer, et al. , says that someone with OCD would be more sensitive to traumatic life events and this would skew the results (2006, p. 10), but it is to my understanding that a traumatic event needs only to be traumatic to the person it is happening to, no matter how another observer may be affected by the same situation. A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
If the event is traumatic to the person they will respond to the event (both mentally and physically) just as another person without OCD would respond to an event that is traumatic to them. References Cromer, K. R. , Schmidt, N. B. , & Murphy, D. L. (2006) An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 45(7). Retrieved September 23, 2007, from ScienceDirect database. (September 28, 2007). NIMH · Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Retrieved October 03, 2007, from http://www. nimh. nih. gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index. shtml.
Obsessional Compulsive Disorder is one of the most frequent happening psychological upsets ranked 4th after phobic disorder, substance maltreatment and depression ( Twohig, Hayes & A ; Masuda, 2006 ) . OCD has a lifetime prevalence rate of about 3 % worldwide ( Hur & A ; Jeong, 2008 ; Kim & A ; Kim,2006 ) . OCD is characterized by frequent occurance of unwanted ideas, urges and images which is called obessesions, and irresistible impulses, which is repeated behaviors and mental Acts of the Apostless ( Hur & A ; Jeong, 2008 ; Kim & A ; Kim, 2006 ; Nanbu et al. , 2009 ) .
In the article by Hatim et Al. ( 2008 ) , Escitalopram, which is a intervention drug, was given to a sample of Malayan patients diagnosed with OCD. In another article by Kawahara, Ueda and Mitsuyama ( 2000 ) , a instance survey of a 43-year-old male OCD patient in Japan was studied when he was admistered Clomipramine and Risperidone throught a clip period. In the 3rd article by Farnam, Goreishizadeh and Farhang ( 2008 ) , as a comparing to utilizing drug as intervention for OCD, the article examines the usage of Fluoxetine in 256 patients who attened the Razi Outpatient Clinic in Iran as a intervention for OCD. All the three articles have used the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ( Y-BOCS ) to mensurate the symptoms in the sample of OCD patients the have selected in the surveies ( Farnam et al.,2008 ; Hatim et al. , 2008 ; Kawahara et al. , 2000 ) . The article by Hatim et Al. ( 2008 ) found out that Escitalopram, as comparison to a placebo test, was more effectual in cut downing the backsliding in Malayan patients with OCD. The survey conducted by Hatim et Al was besides conduted in 13 other states and in Malaysia entirely, the survey was conducted in 4 Centres ( Hatim et al.,2008 ) . In the 16 hebdomad unfastened label period and 24 hebdomad dual blind control intervention for Escitalopram, 33 patients in Malaysia completed the intervention either in the placebo group or the Escitalopram group ( Hatim et al. , 2008 ) . The hazard in the backsliding of OCD patients in the placebo group were 4 times higher that that from the Escitalopram group ( Hatim et al.,2008 ) .The consequence in the Y-BOCS mark during the dual blind period, as mentioned by Hatim et Al, was non statistically important as there is an betterment of 0.9 in the escitalopram group ( Hatim et al.,2008 ) . In the article by Kawahara et Al. ( 2000 ) , the intervention of Clomipramine and Risperidone were both admistered to a 43-year-old male instead.When the patient as mentioned by Kawahara et Al, was foremost admitted to the clinic, he had a Y-BOCS mark of 32 and was given 75milligrams per twenty-four hours clomiprazine, 15 mgs per twenty-four hours of bromazepam and 37.5 mgs per twenty-four hours of Thorazine, and his status was non improved ( Kawahara et al.,2000 ) . However, as the dose of clomipramine increased to 200 mgs per twenty-four hours, his Y-BOCS mark made an betterment to 25.A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay. Further inclusion of risperidone improves the status of the patient by cut downing his irresistible impulses and crossness ( Kawahara et al.,2000 ) .Kawahara et Al. ( 2000 ) besides mentions that a combined intervention of clomipramine or fluvoxamine, and risperidone is effectual in OCD which is serotonin re-uptake inhibitors ( SRI ) resistant. In the 3rd article by Farnam et Al. ( 2008 ) , 154 adult females and 111 work forces were chosen for the survey excepting those who have a history of cormorbid mental upsets, medical jobs and drug maltreatment. These patients, who had their symptoms step on the Y-BOCS graduated table, were prescribed above 40 mgs per twenty-four hours of Prozac for two months ( Farnam et al. , 2008 ) . However, before administrating intervention, the patients were topographic point into 4 different bomber classs, such as obsessional ideas, washers, draughtss and draughtss and washers ( Farnam et al. , 2008 ) . The consequences were taken and the patients who ab initio has a average mark of 22.8 on the Y-BOCS graduated table, improved to 15.4 in two months after the intervention ( Farnam et al.,2008 ) . The Y-BOCS tonss from patients who are listed under draughtss were non statically important compared to those placed under washers and obsessional ideas ( Farnam et al. , 2008 ) . The response rate was measured and it resulted higher in the washer class which is 75 % , and those who are placed under obsessional which is 86.4 % ( Farnam et al. , 2008 ) . In add-on, those placed under draughtss were 31.7 % and washer-checkers were 7.1 % ( Farnam et al. , 2008 ) . A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
Besides medicine, Acceptance and Commitment therapy ( ACT ) could be one type of intervention for OCD ( Twohig et al. , 2006 ) . Although the article mentioned is non written in the Asian context, it mentions that ACT involves forming verbal perceptual experiences to cut down the inclination to believe oneaa’¬a”?s ideas and reacting when these ideas occur, and non needfully cut downing the happening of these ideas ( Twohig et al. , 2006 ) .In the article, the survey was proven effectual for the participants involve after an session of ACT for OCD intercession when self-reported irresistible impulses were reduced ( Twohig et al. , 2006 ) . In the survey conducted, the participants thought that the intervention is extremely suited the consequences were important ( Twohig et al. , 2006 ) .
In decision, the different medicines as mentioned could present an consequence on the OCD patients in the survey, nevertheless, as the sample size for Hatim et alaa’¬a”?s and Kawahara et alaa’¬a”?s surveies are little, one could non reason if the medicine could be used throughout the worldaa’¬a”?s population who suffers from OCD. The handiness of resources that are on surveies conducted in the Asia as compared to Western states could be limited, therefore this could be the ground that published diaries are limited. Although medicine given to OCD patients could hold helped in cut downing their symptoms, there could be certain side effects such as sleepiness ( Kawahara et al. , 2000 ) . A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
During the surveies conducted by the articles mentioned above, the sample that the research workers had chosen were closely monitored to guarantee participants safety in the procedure of the drug usage ( Farnam et al.,2008 ; Hatim et al.,2008 ; Kawahara et al.,2000 ; Twohig et al.,2006 ) .The surveies conducted were approved by local ethnics commission and patients who were take parting were given informed consent ( Hatim et al.,2008 ) . Participants were free to go forth anytime during the survey if they feel uncomfortable ( Hatim et al. , 2008 ) . In Singapore, one could seek aid if they observe OCD symptoms in either themselves or close 1s from either Institute of Mental Health ( Singapore ) or any clinics which offer psychological or psychiatric services such as Nobel Psychological Wellness Clinic.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD as it is commonly referred to as, is an anxiety disorder and a potentially disabling condition. OCD sufferers become trapped in a pattern of repetitive thoughts known as obsessions and behaviors known as compulsions. These obsessions and compulsions are both senseless and distressing and very difficult to overcome. Most people (over 90 percent) who have OCD have both obsessions and compulsions, but individuals with either element can be considered sufferers of the disease (Mental Help Net, 2003). Obsessive-compulsive cases range from mild to severe, where the more severe cases can potentially destroy an individual’s capacity to function at work, school or at home. A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
The obsession element of OCD consists of irrational and unwanted thoughts or impulses that repeatedly occur in an individual’s mind. There is an inner conflict where the person knows these thoughts are irrational, but on another level still fears that they might be true. Trying to avoid the conflict creates great anxiety, which usually leads the individual to give in to their obsessive thoughts leading to compulsive behavior.
Compulsions are repetitive rituals such as hand washing, counting, checking, hoarding, or arranging. An individual will repeats these actions, which creates a feeling of momentary relief but lacks a feeling of satisfaction or a sense of completion. OCD victims usually feel that they must perform these compulsive rituals or something bad will happen, or simply that they will not feel at ease until they do.
A survey conducted in the early 1980s by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provided surprising data regarding the frequency of OCD. The NIMH survey showed that OCD affects more than two percent of the population, meaning that OCD is more common than such mental illnesses as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or panic disorder (Brain.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder can occur if one is threatened death or serious injury or threat to the physical integrity of oneself and others, lastly a response in an event that involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Symptoms must last a minimum of a month and are categorized as re-experiencing of trauma. Nightmares and flashbacks of the incident are key sign of post traumatic stress disorder. Other signs may include hypervigilance, irritability, shame, guilt, anger and grief. A Study of Traumatic Life Compulsive Disorder Essay
Social phobia is persistent fear of situations where he or she is exposed to new people or if there is possibility that there will be scrutiny from others. This type of person would be afraid that they
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