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Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Abortion, one of the most controversial topics of today’s time. Abortion is the intentional termination of a pregnancy. One can be pro-choice or pro-life in the debate. Some may even argue that you can sager between the two of them depending on the circumstance. Pro-choice is defined as a belief that individuals have unlimited autonomy with respect to their own reproduction systems and are for the legalization of abortion. Pro-life, according to though, is defined as the belief that the government has an obligation to preserve all human life, regardless of intent.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper
The child goes through several stages of growth throughout the mother’s pregnancy: zygote, embryo, and fetus. To some, the child’s life has not begun until it develops into a fetus. Some may also argue that if the heart beat is not audible or brain waves are not detectable then the child is not yet living. To others, life begins at conception. The medical definition of conception is defined as the process of fertilization which is when the ovum and sperm meet.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper


Why do women make this choice? There are many different reasons woman make the choice to get abortions. Some families are not socioeconomically stable enough to provide for the child. Some of the woman are single mothers and simply do not want to raise a kid on their own. Another common reason is they are simply done having kids. The woman may be at risk for giving birth due to their age. In some cases, the woman may have been raped or involved in incest.
Of the many ethical theories, utilitarianism is most closely related to the issues with abortion. Utilitarianism is defined as a theory that the aim of action should be the largest possible balance of pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Utility is simply defined as happiness or pleasure. This theory was proposed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mills. The two of them believed in two different types of utility. Bentham believed in quantity and Mills believed in both quantity and quality. Bentham and Mills were hedonists; one who analyzes happiness as a balance for pain and pleasure. They indulge over pleasure rather than pain.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper
There is a process that a utilitarian goes through to calculate utility. It consists of four steps; intensity, duration, fruitfulness, and likelihood. Intensity: the immediate utility created. Duration: the length the utility will last. Fruitfulness: how much utility will occur in the future from the decision. Likelihood: how likely is all of this (the situation) to occur: Example: If a female was raped and was trying to decide what to do, she’d calculate the utility. First, she would decide if aborting the baby would cause immediate happiness and then how long that happiness would last. Then should would try to decide how much happiness there would be in the future from this decision and how likely she is to follow through with it.
A utilitarian has no single view on abortion.

Abortion is a serious issue and ethical dilemma there is a debate going on whether abortion should be legalized or not. Women of every social class or creed seek termination of pregnancy for various reasons such as financial instability, pregnancy as a result of rape or incest, when fetus have congenital abnormality such as congenital heart defects, down syndrome, neural tube defects , when the continuation of pregnancy have harmful effects on mother or when mother is suffering from diseases like hepatitis . Sometimes a mother goes for abortion without even paying attention to future consequences, and if abortion is not legalized then the women utilizes the unsafe services provided by the quacks . there are many devastating effects of illegalization of abortion. Most of the people in our society use abortion as their family planning method which gives opponent a point to legalize the abortion.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper
Loss of pregnancy is a major stressors which can cause mental disorders. In stressful conditions, spiritual intelligence can be used as a coping strategy to manage and cope with the stressors. It may also produce positive outcomes in spontaneous abortion. Most women were depressed (54%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant predictors of depression were women’s educational status (OR 0.419; CI 0.18-0.93), gestational age at the time of abortion (OR 1.121; CI 1.02-1.22), and the personal meaning production dimension of spiritual intelligence (OR 0.82; CI 0.73-0.91). Spiritual intelligence is significantly correlated with post-abortion depression. Developing and following strategies for promoting spiritual intelligence can alleviate depression, stress, and anxiety after spontaneous abortion and also help manage complicated pregnancies.
We have to understand that the application of the utilitarian principle of ethics seeks to set a general rule to apply to all moral decisions. In the case of abortion, the utilitarian states that all unwanted pregnancies that represent a physical, mental, emotional, and financial hardship should be terminated via abortion. Furthermore, the utilitarian does not look at the unborn fetus as in a way which happiness is to be gained or lost, but rather as a piece of society as a whole. This becomes a disadvantage because the fetus is not allowed any rights nor is it granted happiness because at this stage it does not experience a cognitive rational thought process. The limitations that the utilitarian theory adds to the discussions must also be addressed as many times there is not enough information provided to come to a final and ever so important conclusion. The utilitarian method is a straight forward way to determine the best possibilities of pleasure over pain for all involved.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Abortion is a method for a pregnant woman to discard the growing fetus that lives inside of her. There are many arguments for and against abortion. Some people say that the mother should have a choice to abort her baby, and others say that it is wrong to kill a child.

Abortion is wrong. When a baby is aborted, that child has no chance at life. Abortion kills a living breathing human that lives inside of the mother. Dr. Alan Moore from the University of Texas states that one out of every twenty pregnancies end in abortion. That is five lives out of one hundred that could have been saved if the mother had decided to let her child live.

Abortion also harms the mother. Every woman that has an abortion is twenty-five percent less likely to become pregnant in the future. If then she decides that she does want to have a child, it will become harder for her to get pregnant.

Abortion is also creating a problem in the hospitals. The dead fetuses are very difficult to dispose of. There are no graves being built for the fetuses and the hospital has to send them off to a lab to have tests run on them for genealogical purposes. This is a very costly and tedious process for the doctors and the lab technicians.

The Pro-Choice supporters that are for abortion argue that it is a mother’s right to decide whether the child should live or die. They are stating that if the mother does not want a child, she should just have it sucked out of her body and disposed of like last week’s garbage. They claim that a growing fetus is not an actual living person; therefore, that fetus should not have a chance at life.

Most mothers choose to have their babies aborted because they don’t have the funds to support a child. The government has provided systems such as welfare, which gives the mother money to support the child, and they have started adoption agencies, which find suitable parents for the child. There are many young couples who are not able to have children.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Teenage Abortion

Teenage abortion has become a complicated issue in today?s time. The decision we are faced with is ?Who Chooses?, the parent or their pregnant teenage daughter. Most parents are informed and support their daughter?s decision whatever that decision might be. There are a few teenage girls who do not inform their parents they are pregnant and want to have an abortion. Instead they have illegal abortions or travel out of state to have an abortion done because it is illegal in their home state. Teenage abortion is on the increase; it is a never-ending battle that poses a legal, medical, social and moral dilemma.
Many legal battles have been fought in the United States over the issue of abortion. Merz states that the earliest American law on abortion was based on the British common law. In addition, Merz says until 1803 the British common law did not view abortion as a crime if it was performed before the fetus ?quickened?. Since a fetus is not yet a baby, does the unborn child have the capacity to feel pain Doctors today know that unborn children can feel a touch within the teenage, abortion, life, states, should, right, because, abortions, united, decision, child, teenagers, parents, medical, fetus, women, unborn, result, performed, parental, merz, illegal, feel, complications, been, age, about, pregnant, pregnancy, moral, law, girls, fifteen, daughter, consent.


Ethical Issues Regarding Abortion If you look at it from the moral angle, there are many dimensions associated to abortion. It is virtually impossible to give a legal judgment in any case of abortion in quick time because the debate is extremely complex and every single question raises more sub-questions and sub-parts. Nevertheless, there are pro-life enthusiasts who’re against abortion and then there are ‘pro-choice’ who’re either partially or completely in favor of abortion. So does the debate on abortion have any end? Probably not.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

But as individuals we can study and know more about both sides of the story and then form our opinions. In debates on abortion, it is always wise to be unbiased as only that can help you arrive at a better position to conclude anything. Consider these ethical issues on abortion that need to be thought over deeply. Is it ethically/morally wrong to kill any fetus that has the potential to life? Those against abortion argue that a fetus is very much alive like us and has the capacity to evolve into a complete human being. So killing a fetus is just like killing a human being, which is completely wrong.

In response to this sensitive question, pro-choice people come up with their own logical argument. As per the supporters of abortion, there is no fixed definition of “human being” in the womb. Just because a group of living cells exist in the womb, it is not right to call it a “human being”. If killing a fetus is wrong, then amputating a hand or a leg in case of accident must also amount to murder. Further, proponents of abortion believe the embryo in a womb must only be considered to be a human after it has reached a certain stage of development.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

So generally embryos start showing signs of heartbeat development in at least 21 days of conception. Hence, if killed before, it won’t amount to killing a life. This argument is further said to be misleading by anti-abortion groups because according to them, if a cell has life, it will experience pain if killed. It is wrong to cause pain and trauma to a potential life. What about the rights of the mother?? If a woman is pregnant due to unfortunate incidents like rape then is it not her right to choose abortion? After all it is her body and she as a human being has control over it.

Similarly, if a couple gets involved in unprotected sex without using contraceptive methods resulting in a pregnancy, what step should they take, if they’re not prepared for the baby? At the end, it is the pregnant lady who suffers everything. So shouldn’t the choice to abort the baby be the sole decision of the mother? Abortion also becomes a question of woman’s rights. And what in cases of teenage pregnancy? What if is the mother is mentally, emotionally and economically unprepared to handle the nuisances of being a mother or parent?Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Isn’t it logically correct and more responsible on her part to go for abortion? These are in essence some of the most vital questions that don’t have some fixed answers. Some Other Ethical Issues on Abortion If the mother has some complications during child birth, should the doctor save the mother or the baby? If the baby is not saved, it will be called as an abortion while if the mother is not saved, it will be like killing her knowingly which can be equated to murder. The mother has right to her own body. If she doesn’t want to carry a baby, why can’t she get rid of it?

In cases of an abnormal child who may face several disabilities in the developing years of his or her life, what if the parents want to abort it? What should be the best decision in case there are many fetuses in the womb, some healthy and some unhealthy? If some may not live till the time of pregnancy, isn’t it fair to abort them? We only discuss the fetus and mother rights when it comes to abortion debate. What if the father doesn’t want the baby but the mother wants it? What if the reverse happens? Who is to be given more priority when they both are equally responsible for creating the life?Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

As you can see, there is strictly no limit on the number of ethical issues on abortion. Every single argument gives way to numerous other questions. Ethics or morality have always been an integral aspect of religions and code of conducts in our societies. Issues like that of abortion or even homosexuality have changed thinking patterns in the society to quite a large extent. In the time to come, we can expect to see more legal battles and cases regarding the complex issue of abortion. Till then, debates on abortion will go on.

The argument of abortion has been going on since the Supreme Court case, Roe vs. Wade, which legalized abortion. There are two opinions: pro-life and pro-choice. Pro-life argues that abortions are murder and extreme child abuse. While pro-choice believe abortions are a reasonable way to end pregnancies. An abortion is not murder because the unborn baby is not yet a human being and it should be the mother’s right to have an abortion without being called murder.

The availability of abortion makes it possible for people to choose the number of children they want and create the kind of family life they have always wanted for themselves, and to meet their responsibilities. Pregnancy and childbirth may also determine whether a woman ever gets to start or complete her education, which will influence her ability to support herself. The life of a fetus cannot be separated from the life of a pregnant woman. This is unique in medicine and law.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

No one can create a set of medical principles or legal principles giving a right to life to the fetus, because by doing so, inevitably the woman’s rights becomes limited. The importance on what makes a human is very important. A human is the result of sperm fertilizing an egg. After the fertilization, the embryo is composed of a single cell with its own DNA structure. Having an abortion is more like killing a unique cell. A human is defined as having self awareness and acknowledgement of being a “human”, which proves the embryo baby is not a actually a human being so aborting it would be as normal as destroying a tumor.

The unborn is an embryo or a fetus-just a simple blob of tissue, a product of conception-not a baby. Abortion is terminating a pregnancy, not killing a child. Based on pro-life view, the embryo is already a small baby; they would say that abortion is forbidden even to save the mother’s life. Their main excuse is that the baby is innocent, and killing the baby would be murder. But on the other hand, an embryo baby is not a form of life because it has not yet had any experience or feelings, so probably doesn’t have any thoughts.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

The fetus may be alive, but so are eggs and sperm. The fetus is a potential human being, not an actual one; it’s like a blueprint not a house, an acorn not an oak tree. Even if the embryo baby is considered as a human being because it has a possible life, the unborn can’t decide if they want to live. The embryos are not yet a independent human, but just kind of an attachment to the mother, so she should be able to “terminate” it. The embryo is inside her body and she produced it, she should have the right to terminate it as she does to remove any other part of her body.

The embryo is not a human being so it should not be murder. The child inside them is their property and it’s life doesn’t start until their birth. Many teens have unwanted pregnancies and every child should be a wanted child. Aborting unwanted children reduced the number of abused children. Abortions must be kept legal, especially for all the rape and incest pregnancies. If abortion is outlawed women will be forced to go to back-alley abortion clinics. With these thoughts in mind the idea of abortion is reasonable and should stay legal.

Is abortion ever morally justifiable? Of course there are two ways in which one can answer this question. Yes there are times in which abortion is a moral alternative to child birth, and no there is never a time in which abortion is morally justifiable. In order to determine whether or not abortion is ever morally justifiable one must look at both sides of the issue and compare them. On one side there are the Thomistic views on the morality of abortion, and on the other side you have the reasoning given by modern abortion supporters. As with most issues there is not only a clear-cut black and white side, but there is also a grey area somewhere in the middle. It is for this reason that I will also be including my personal interpretation of what I learn by comparing both sides of this most important issue.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

It has been said that abortion is allowable because a fetus, not being a person, has no rights. By all Thomistic accounts, this assumption is a gross fallacy. “An abortion is the expulsion of a nonliving and nonviable fetus from the womb. Since the fetus cannot live outside its mother until the completion of the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy, removal of a nonviable fetus from the womb is the equivalent of destroying it (Higgins).”” Although an abortion may be performed in order to save the life of a pregnant women, or in order to escape the moral obligations associated with a pregnancy, it is “a direct attack upon innocent human life and is always murder (Higgins).”” Considering that each human being begins their life in the form of a fetus, it is hard to support the argument that a fetus is not a human, and thus even harder to dispute the fact that a fetus does have rights. Furthermore, “the morality of the problem has no relation to the dispute over the time when the rational soul is infused into the embryo. The likeliest opinion is that this occurs when, after fertilization, a distinctly new living thing is formed.

Abortion was created to aid in certain situations in which a woman could not or did not want to give birth to a child and to care for the child. Abortion is a method in which the baby still in the mother’s womb or the living embryo/fetus is killed. Abortions will be performed for many reasons if it is an unwanted pregnancy for social and/or financial reasons or if there are medical circumstances with the child and/or the mother. A woman may be unable to carry the child or there may be congenital defects and the child would not be able to live afterbirth. The child may have genetic irregularities, such as Down syndrome. The parents may feel that they would be incapable of caring for the child and often the parents may feel that to have their child would have negative consequences to their lives. However, often, what are not taken into consideration are the negative effects after abortion, psychological and physical. Ultimately, the results may actually be worse than the problems, which were to be solved to begin with. These after-effects should be focused on and dealt with in a better manner. .Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Many may feel abortion causing psychological problems is a myth, but the research supporting it is there. From the time of just after the abortion to years later, there is severe psychological trauma can and does occur. Women may have the second thought of whether or not their decision was right or not. These feelings may lead to more serious grief responses as well as depression. In some cases, it may lead to serious psychological disorders such as major depressive order and post-traumatic-stress disorder (PTSD). In post-abortion syndrome, which equals PTSD, the symptoms would include depression, guilt, anger, and social and sexual dysfunction (Arthur 7). Another combination of feelings women experience after an abortion are shame and anger. The shame comes from the looking back at the experience they have just been through.

The word abortion brings many different positions and thoughts to mind that scope from a woman’s right to her organic structure to straight-out slaying. Although at the present. many authorities in universe allow abortions to a certain grade. 1000000s of people have debated for old ages whether abortions are morally acceptable or non. It is in the sentiment of this writer that abortion. though a controversial subject is by and large incorrect and should non be allowed in the huge bulk of instances.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper


In the Evangelism Vitae. Pope John Paul II believes abortion is a really serious job and should non be allowed. He states that people should non utilize euphemisms for abortion. but to name it by its existent name: the violent death of a individual. Because Pope John Paul II views life as get downing at construct. he strongly opposes abortion at any phase. The footing for his statement is that an embryo is an guiltless being that can non support itself at all and is wholly dependent on the female parent for everything. This point is right because an embryo has non done anything to anyone ; the embryo was created by the actions of the female parent and male parent. and it is for this ground it can be said the embryo is an guiltless being. From his spiritual position point Pope John Paul views the slaying of anyone inexperienced person to be morally incorrect because everyone has a right to life.

Don Marquis provides and interesting position on the abortion issue that many pro-life people support. He establishes his standards by first depicting why the bulk of people view violent deaths as incorrect. Harmonizing to Marquis. killing person is incorrect if the individual has a “future like ours. ” This means that if the being will develop life experiences and have potential for a hereafter that will give rise to human values and values so it is incorrect to kill that individual. A great facet of this theory is that it allows for mercy killing for those persons that are in a relentless vegetative province or terminally sick ; in these instances the person would non hold a hereafter like ours and it would non be morally incorrect to kill them. I believe this manner of looking at the abortion statement is great because it avoids the controversial issue of the position of the embryo during its developmental phases. All embryos will develop into worlds and hence have hereafters like our ain which would do it incorrect to kill them.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

One expostulation raised against the hereafter like ours theory is on the issue of contraceptive method and forestalling sperm and eggs from unifying to organize an embryo. Marquis maintains that his thought does non qualify preventives to be unmoral because he states that “there is no non-arbitrarily identifiable topic of the loss in the instance of the contraceptive method. ” He besides adds that 1000000s of sperm are released and merely one is able to fertilize the egg. the remainder of course die. So in this manner contraceptive method is non needfully morally incorrect. Besides. usually if the egg of a adult female is non fertilized. it to will decease usually. Prior to the brotherhood. eggs and sperm do non hold a hereafter like ours and hence are non incorrect to “kill. ”

Bonnie Steinbeck argues that most abortions should be allowed and are non morally incorrect. Her personal position is the “interest position. ” which states that existences that are non-sentient. that is they do non hold nervous systems. are of no moral significance. These existences can non experience hurting or pleasant and therefore hold no involvement in what happens to them. For illustration. a auto can acquire scratched up. but since it does non experience hurting there is no right to be conferred to autos protecting them. Likewise. Steinbeck states that most scientists believe embryos normally do non go sentient until after the first trimester. This implies that fetus do non experience hurting. and under the involvement position have no moral right to life. Stein bock continues by saying fetus in the first trimester are unconscious existences that are non being deprived of life if they are killed. She states these existences are merely populating a biological life and non consciously alive. in which instance it is non incorrect to kill them.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

I would wish to raise an expostulation to this claim of consciousness being a necessity for holding life. Peoples who go into comas may be unconscious for years. months. or even old ages. yet it would be morally incorrect to euthanize them within the first few years of unconsciousness. There is ever the opportunity that individual will come out of the coma and go a normal individual one time once more. Peoples are non considered dead if they become unconscious in which instance they besides do non experience hurting or pleasant. and can technically be classified as non-sentient existences at the present. Likewise. although a fetus may be unconscious during gestation. there is a promise that it will develop into a babe and have consciousness. It is non a opportunity as in the coma illustration but a definite thing. and this is why using the consciousness as life thought to the abortion contention is incorrect.

Judith Thomson. a good known advocate of abortion. cites interesting illustrations and thoughts that many look upon to settle the contention of abortion. Possibly she is best known for her analogy of a woman’s right to make up one’s mind what happens to her organic structure. Her illustration is that you wake up to a celebrated unconscious fiddler connected to you when you wake up in the forenoon. You had no thought about this until this forenoon and were kidnapped and operated on without your permission last dark so the fiddler may last. Besides. if you decide on unplugging yourself from this individual so he will decease. From this scenario she says it would be morally sort to assist out and let this individual to remain connected to you for nine months until they get better. but you would be under no moral duty to make so. Obviously most people would happen this to be hideous and would non see it morally obligatory to remain connected and assist this individual. She emphasizes the portion of non being asked for permission foremost to associate this scenario to those of colas that result in gestation.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

I do non believe this analogy right describes the state of affairs of gestation for it has many defects. First of all. the “person” being connected is non a alien as Thomson describes in her analogy. but instead a portion of the female parent. The embryo/baby is at least 50 % genetically the same as the female parent. There is a major difference in holding moral duties to salvage your aim kids and complete aliens. Mothers portion a particular bond with their progeny and most people would hold that they do hold to set their aim convinces aside to assist their kids. Furthermore. referring the colza instance. Thompson does convey up a good point about the adult female non giving permission to hold a kid in her organic structure for nine months. However. I must indicate once more to the fact that it is no alien but genetically 50 % similar to the female parent that will be formed in her organic structure. With that being said. aborting the fetus would be similar to killing a portion of the female parent in the signifies of the fetus. This is evidently incorrect and should non be allowed. Many people would object to this claim because the woman’s pick is violated. but the embryo did non make anything wrong…

All in all. in my sentiment abortions should non be allowed under most instances. The lone exclusion that should be considered is those in which the mother’s life is at hazard. In that instance the determination should be left up to the female parent and household to see all the options and make up one’s mind. This is of import to let the female parent and household to make up one’s mind because each instance could hold multiple factors that would impossible to organize a generalized statement on. Overall I see the hereafter like ours theory to outdo explain why abortions should non be allowed in the huge bulk of instances. Embryos are considered by some to be individuals. while others object to that claim. but everyone accepts that embryos are possible people. If left entirely and allowed to take a natural class will so develop into a individual. Aborting the fetus/embryo would stop the life prematurely and is in fact tantamount to killing a individual which is morally incorrect because it ends a life that will develop consciousness. experiences. and feelings that all people have.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Before an abortion

Before having an abortion, you’ll need to attend an assessment appointment at the hospital or clinic.

During this assessment, you may:

discuss your reasons for considering an abortion and whether you’re sure about your decision
be offered the chance to talk things over with a trained counselor if you think it might help
talk to a nurse or doctor about the abortion methods available, including any associated risks and complications
do a pregnancy test to confirm you’re pregnant – an ultrasound scan may be done to check how many weeks pregnant you are
be tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), your blood type and low iron levels (anemia)
be given antibiotics to reduce the risk of an infection developing after the abortion

When you’re sure you want to go ahead with the abortion, you’ll be asked to sign a consent form and a date for the abortion will be arranged. You can change your mind at any point up to the start of the procedure.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Methods of abortion

There are two main types of abortion:

medical abortion (the “abortion pill”) – taking medication to end the pregnancy
surgical abortion – a minor procedure to remove the pregnancy

Medical and surgical abortions can generally only be carried out up to 24 weeks of pregnancy.

But in exceptional circumstances an abortion can take place after 24 weeks – for example, if there’s a risk to life or there are problems with the baby’s development.

You should be offered a choice of which method you would prefer whenever possible.

Medical abortion

A medical abortion involves taking medication to end the pregnancy. It doesn’t require surgery or an anesthetic, and can be used at any stage of pregnancy.

It involves the following steps:

you first take a medicine called steppingstone – this stops the hormone that allows the pregnancy to continue working; you’ll be able to go home afterwards and continue your normal activities
usually 24 to 48 hours later, you have another appointment where you take a second medicine called misoprostol – this will either be a tablet that you may swallow, let dissolve under your tongue or between your cheek and gum, or put inside your vagina
within four to six hours, the lining of the womb breaks down, causing bleeding and loss of the pregnancy – you may have to stay at the clinic while this happens or you may be able to go home

If a medical abortion is carried out after nine weeks, you may need more doses of misoprostol and you’re more likely to need to stay in the clinic or hospital. Occasionally, the pregnancy doesn’t pass and a small operation is needed to remove it.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Surgical abortion

Surgical abortion involves having a procedure with local anesthetic (where the area is numbed), conscious sedation (where you’re relaxed but awake), or general anesthetic (where you’re asleep).

There are two methods.

Vacuum or suction aspiration

Can be used up to 15 weeks of pregnancy. It involves inserting a tube through the entrance to the womb (the cervix) and into your womb. The pregnancy is then removed using suction.

Your cervix will be gently widened (dilated) first. A tablet may be placed inside your vagina or taken by mouth a few hours beforehand to soften your cervix and make it easier to open.

Pain relief is usually given using medicines that you take by mouth, and local anesthetic, which is numbing medicine injected into the cervix. You may also be offered some sedation, which is given by injection. A general anesthetic isn’t usually needed.

Vacuum aspiration takes about 5 to 10 minutes and most women go home a few hours later.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

Dilatation and evacuation (D&E)

Used from around 15 weeks of pregnancy. It involves inserting special instruments called forceps through the cervix and into the womb to remove the pregnancy.

The cervix is gently dilated for several hours or up to a day before the surgery to allow the forceps to be inserted.

D&E is carried out with conscious sedation or general anesthetic. It normally takes about 10 to 20 minutes and you might be able to go home the same day.


After an abortion

If you have a medical abortion, you may experience short lived side effects from the medications, such as nausea and diarrhea. General anesthetic and conscious sedation medication can also have side effects.

For all types of abortion, it’s likely you will experience some stomach cramps and vaginal bleeding, too. These usually last a week or two. Sometimes light vaginal bleeding after a medical abortion can last up to a month.

After an abortion, you can:

take ibuprofen to help with any pain or discomfort
use sanitary towels or pads rather than tampons until the bleeding has stopped
have sex as soon as you feel ready, but use contraception if you want to avoid getting pregnant again as you’ll usually be fertile immediately after an abortion

Get advice if you experience heavy bleeding, severe pain, smelly vaginal discharge, a fever or ongoing signs of pregnancy, such as nausea and sore breasts. The clinic will give you the number of a 24-hour helpline to call if you have concerns.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

You may experience a range of emotions after an abortion. If you need to discuss how you’re feeling, contact the abortion service or ask your GP about post-abortion counsel ling.Abortion Assignment Case Study Paper

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