Acetaminophen Overdose Research Paper.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug . Acetaminophen overdose has been extensively reported in the USA and UK . It remains the most common means of pharmaceutical poisoning in the eastern nations, including Malaysia. Acetaminophen Overdose Research Paper.
Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are the main characteristic features of acetaminophen poisoning. The risk of toxicity is initially determined from the extent of acetaminophen exposure after considering the stated amount ingested and comparison of serum acetaminophen concentrations to the Rumack-Matthew nomogram. The extent of hepatic and renal injury is later determined by measurement of serum liver enzyme activity, prothrombin time, and creatinine concentrations .
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For adults, ingestion of 150 mg/kg or more [11.5 g for a 70 kg adult (23 tablets of 500 mg)] should be considered potentially hepatotoxic . Management of poisoned patients includes activated charcoal within the first hour after ingestion and administration of the antidote N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which reduces complications and provides almost complete protection against liver necrosis if given within 8-10 hours of acetaminophen ingestion . Acetaminophen Overdose Research Paper.
Factors influencing the length of in-hospital stay (LOS) in poisoned patients have received less attention in the literature, and there are no previously published studies regarding the LOS after acute acetaminophen overdose. Determining the factors influencing the hospitalization period may help decrease the LOS, reduce costs, and improve the efficiency of management.
To improve our knowledge about hospital stay after acute acetaminophen overdose, we carried out this three-year hospital-based study with the following objectives:
1) to investigate the prevalence of prolonged hospital stay in patients admitted to hospital after acute acetaminophen overdose, 2) to identify the clinical and demographic factors associated with prolonged hospital stays, and
3) to evaluate the effectiveness of early treatment of acute acetaminophen overdose patients (≤ 8 hours) by intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) on prolonged hospital stays. The knowledge of prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of prolonged hospital stay in patients after acetaminophen overdose might contribute to reducing complication rates by enhancing the application of specific therapeutic and management strategies to patients at high risk of hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, knowledge of predictors in the first hours of hospital admission still deserves special attention because even a quantitative decrease in hospital stay may be translated into substantial savings in health care costs and resources. Acetaminophen Overdose Research Paper.