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Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
When you are a little child you always imagine what life will be like when you’re older. As a child you think you will grow up a singer, firefighter, policeman or something special; you don’t ever think that you will become a teen mother or parent. Teen pregnancy is becoming a complex issue in the United States (Klein, 2005). It not only affects the families of the teen parents, it also affects the government, health care, educators, and the teen (Klein, 2005). When a little girl grows up she always says that she wants to be a mommy one day like her own mother, but never states that she wants to be a teenage mother. Young per-teens and teens from ages 12-18 are increasingly having babies these days. Even though they don’t know it their young age and stage in development will have a great impact on the growing infant. Being a teen mom will not only affect their lives, it will affect their babies.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Girls around the ages of nine until about sixteen years old go to puberty and archenemy which is sometimes difficult for girls to understand and be comfortable with. Going through the developmental stage of puberty girls develop into young ladies and their bodies develop more; these developments are the ones that attract the boys. When girls are ready to explore them never really think about all of the outcomes of their actions. About one fourth of American adolescents have had intercourse by the age of fifteen years old (Klein, 2005). Most of the time, an adolescents first time is without using contraception;63% of teens reported did not use a condom their last intercourse(Klein,2005) .This can be a huge factor with teenage pregnancy and the increased rates of STD’s. When teens have intercourse and experiment, they don’t think twice about getting pregnant or what could happen in the future.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teen mothers are not full developed in their stage of development. Their brains and bodies are still immature and some aren’t even developed enough to hold a child. A child at the age of twelve is in their “awkward” stage in development when their body starts to look weird to them. Carrying a child at that age has serious risks due to the fact that the child does not have the body to carry an infant. With 20% of 740,000 U.S. teen girls getting pregnant a year, prevention strategies should be taken (Berk, 2012). Also, teen mothers often do not know they are pregnant until it is too late, which then they do not have a good start on the prenatal care of the baby. Most teen mothers still smoke, drink, and have inadequate diets that can cause complications to the infant (Berk, 2012).Teen moms also do not have the funds to get good prenatal care and care for themselves while they are pregnant. Poor prenatal care of the infant can suppress the development if the immune system and cause problems with the respiratory system (Berk, 2012). Teen mothers have a higher rate of having babies that are underweight, and there is a higher risk for Down syndrome in the fetus. The United States holds the record for the highest teen pregnancies in the world (Gallup-Black & Weizmann, 2004). The shocking part about teen pregnancy today is that it is lower than it was in 1991(Berk, 2012).Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teen pregnancy also has other leading factors to it that psychologist haven’t investigated yet. The new shows on TV called “Teen Mom” and “Sixteen and Pregnant” are factors to teen pregnancy are many ways. Teenage girls are watching these shows and saying “Oh this is all I have to do to get a show on TV” or “Wow I hope I can be a teen mom and go on that show!” Teen girls watching these shows look at the lives of other teens becoming parents but bypass the fact that they are struggling and look at the fact that they are making money for being teen mothers. Not only do the teens on these dreadful shows become TV stars, their faces start to become posted on all these different magazines such as “People” magazine or “Seventeen” magazine. This makes teen girls want to buy the magazine and influences them to get pregnant even more. MTV and other television stations should create shows on what teen pregnancy does to your life and to prevent teen pregnancy rather than have teen mothers flaunt their pregnancy around. The only positive thing about the show “Sixteen and Pregnant” is that it is more of a documentary and it does show that the teens are struggling and having a hard time being a teenager and a parent.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Adolescent teen mothers usually come from a low income or poor family. About 83% of teen moms who give birth are from a low income household (Klein, 2005). The economic circumstances of teen mothers are a huge issue. Due to the fact that most teen parents are not graduated high school and most of them end up dropping out of school, those being able to find a good job to support their new family are extremely difficult. Usually teen mothers and fathers find low-paying, unskilled jobs which can only provide the new baby with the basic necessities (Berk, 2012). Teenage mothers cannot work until about 6 weeks after the child is born, so they are more dependent on the teen father and their parents to support the teen and the baby they just delivered. Teen mothers not only have to deal with the stress of having a new baby, they also have to deal with stress of income and school.
Teen pregnancy is a huge issue in the United States and all around the world. Teens from the ages of 12-19 are having sex and most of them aren’t realizing the full consequences of intercourse without contraception and birth control. Condoms and birth control are free in many states and all a teen has to do is go to the nearest clinic and ask for them. With approximately 900,000 teenage girls getting pregnant every year in the United states (Klein, 2005), prevention measures should be taken. Teen moms do not realize that their bodies aren’t fully developed to carry children and that they are not fully mature enough to become a parent. Most teen moms become single mothers due to the fact that the teen father runs off because he cannot handle to pressures of parenting. Teenage girls are having children and not thinking about the drastic change that the child is going to have on them and their families. Even though 35% of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion (Gallup-Black &Weizmann, 2004); teens that have their babies are unaware of what being a parent is. Also, teen mothers are most likely to drop out of high school and then will not ever get the chance to see how the rest of their high school years, graduation, and college experiences would be. Their incomes will be lower because most fathers or mothers will not have a successful job. About 50% of teen parents have also had a criminal record or have been committed of some illegal offense (Berk, 2012).Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Through these facts and main ideas stated in this research paper, teen pregnancy is clearly an issue and should be pronounced as an issue. There should be more methods of prevention taken so that teens get a clear view of what their life would be like as a teen parent. High schools and middle schools should address this issue to their students to help them realize what a great impact becoming pregnant as a teen has on them and their whole world. Teens should use condoms and learn more about what the actions and consequences of sex are before and while they do it. Also there should be more support group or other centers for teen moms to meet up and discuss how their lives have changed and support one another. Becoming a teen mother is not the end of the world, and the mothers should know that. Teen mothers need support and do teens without children to learn the changes and to prevent the other teens from having children at such a young age. Throughout this research and the articles supporting this research, teens should follow through and learn about prevention and contraception so they can become successful and live their lives before becoming a parent.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teenage pregnancy is a very serious issue in modern society and a rich topic for essay writing. An unexpected pregnancy can be immensely difficult for a young couple to raise on their own, and can easily prevent young men and women from achieving their life goals due to the responsibilities thrust upon them. As such, preventing teenage pregnancy is an important part of ensuring the overall health of the youth population. This is a sample essay that focuses on teenage pregnancy prevention tactics.
Preventing teenage pregnancy
The primary prevention method that should be utilized to prevent teenage pregnancy is the use of condoms which can be promoted through the use of sexual education. Studies have found that sexual education is the most effective method to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy, though these methods can be controversial and many parents would rather opt for abstinence only methods. Abstinence alone, however, has not proven to be effective,
“Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education”. (Kohler, 2008)”.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
As it is ultimately a parent’s decision to teach sexual education to their child, a nurse’s role is to help a parent make an educated decision for their teenagers sexual health, and have a keen understanding of the sexual behaviors of teenagers and young adults. If prevention methods are unsuccessful and a teenager becomes pregnant, a nurse can be vital in assisting the teenager throughout her pregnancy by developing a nursing diagnosis and treatment plan to ensure a healthy pregnancy.
A teenager can face multiple challenges during a pregnancy that can include health concerns, family problems, judgment from peers and psychological issues. A correct nursing diagnosis is crucial in the development of an effective nursing treatment plan. A role performance disturbance (Gordon, 2010) can occur in most teenagers as they are still seen as children however they must take on adult responsibilities of giving birth to and taking care of a child.
A discharge outcome for the teenager with role performance disturbances would include being able to adapt to the change in role for the teenager. The best outcome would also prepare the teenager for the arrival of the baby. The nursing intervention could include discussing with the teenager techniques to be able to adapt to the role change as well as discussion on how the teenager is coping with the role change.
Teenagers are faced many times with the question of readiness to have sex from their peers, society and ultimately themselves. These questions can be detrimental to the sexual health of the teenager as a lot of the focus is on when the teenager is ready not on if the teenager should be engaging in sexual activity.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
“I argue that this “discourse of readiness” poses serious threats to teen’s identity development, sexual decision making, and educators efforts to help them through these processes” (Ash craft, 2006).
Rather than a discussion of readiness to have sex, the focus should be on a readiness for learning about teenage sexuality and pregnancy. As teenagers are still developing their brains and decision making skills it is essential to teach teenagers about their growing hormones and sexual activity. Studies have found that programs which teach sexual education increase the rates of condom use which subsequently reduce teenage pregnancy.
“Safer Choices had its greatest effect on measures involving condom use. The program reduced the frequency of intercourse without a condom during the three months prior to the survey…increased use of condoms and other protection against pregnancy at last intercourse” (Coyle, 2001).
As teenagers are increasingly likely to engage in sexual activity it is important that they are safe, utilizing effective contraception methods, and learning about sexual health through channels like this expository essay. By decreasing rate of teenage sexuality we can increase the health of the teenage population both physically and psychologically.  Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Cause and Effect Teenage Pregnancy Essay

Modern society seems to be somewhat hysterical in what concerns the issue of teenage pregnancy. The reason for it, as I suppose, is that most people subconsciously feel why it has become a problem, but it is considered inappropriate to state the truth because it stands in opposition to commonly accepted ideals. However, the truth is as follows: the cause of teenage pregnancy is the gap between the rights and duties, or, more exactly, between the time a person is considered to have rights and the time when he or she is considered to have duties.
The problem is, we are all told that teenagers and even children should be treated as seriously as if they were adults; however, they are not adults. In my understanding, a person can only be considered to be an adult if he earns enough money to sustain himself. Until one doesn’t, one cannot be treated as an adult, at least not in the meaning of giving him the rights of an adult.
What we do is directly opposite. Every teenager is considered to be an adult in the sphere of rights and a child in the sphere of duties; and he is constantly being persuaded that he is a grown-up and can take his own decisions. Unfortunately, children are stupid – it is not offense, it is simply a statement of fact – and their understanding of rights doesn’t go much further than “the right to have sex”. But not to have the duty to be responsible for the consequences.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

When you think of teen pregnancy, you probably think that there isn’t a positive thing you could say about it. Actually, there is one big thing people can get out of teen pregnancy, better education about sex and pregnancy. There are many things that contribute to this issue, shows like sixteen and Pregnant and Teen Mom are glamorizing teen pregnancy, which is actually a big issue and the blame should be placed on the parents and media.
Peer pressure by friends can play a factor into the issue, if a child hangs out with a group of people that are sexually active, 9 out of 10 times that child is too. About 2/3 of all shows, excluding sports and news, and 83 percent of music and movies watched by teens include sexual content (Brown11-4)
Poverty and lack of academic success contribute, there is mounting evidence that poor academic success and bad parenting lead to teen pregnancy. Babies from teen mothers usually have poor health, lower grades, and have lower cognitive tests scores (Witte 137-54). The majority of children from an unplanned pregnancy are born to unmarried women. Children raised in single parent families face more challenges; they are more likely to be poor, dropout, lower grade point average, and poor school attendance records (Brown 11-4).
Other causes of teen pregnancy can be due to the “teen rebellious stage”, and girls that feel like they aren’t getting enough attention and think getting pregnant is the only way to feel important (Kirby 89-94). Most teen girls are asked to drop out in the later stages of pregnancy because they do not to “encourage” other girls. Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teen pregnancy is not an emerging trend or a new phenomenon. It goes back to a century especially in developed countries and European nations where moral values are at great risk. Alone in United States of America, one million teenage pregnancies comes forward each year. Out of these, 85% are most often unplanned. This simply increases the risk factors and gives rise to more problems for teen mothers. However, with spreading awareness about teen pregnancies and associated risks, it is also obvious that this trend is declining nowadays.
Read cause and effect essay on violence
Effects of Teenage Pregnancy
Effects of early pregnancy are far beyond what the victim may think. Here are some effects of teenage pregnancy on the life of the teen mother as well as the baby:
Health Consequences of Teen Pregnancy
Teenage pregnancy especially produces adverse effects on teen mothers. They feel it difficult and develop fear of telling the truth to others. This leaves them behind with lack of care required at prenatal stage.
Risk of Teen Mothers Having Low Birth Weight Babies
Several statistics on teen pregnancy mention that teenage mother gives birth to a child with low birth weight just because of poor nutritional intake and depression. This low weight at birth produces infant disorders as well as high chances of mortality for the baby before reaching up to his or her first birthday. Moreover, such babies may have organs that are not properly developed resulting in common disorders like brain bleeding, intestinal disorders and respiratory syndrome.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Effects of Teen Pregnancy on Baby
Effects of teenage pregnancies on baby also matter a lot. Such babies grow up in poor sociology economic status that multiplies their health issues. Moreover, in later stage of their lives they may develop criminal activities because of negligence they had experienced in the formative years of their lives. Such children also fail to pass successful relations at family and friends levels.
Teen pregnancy is a public health issue because of its risk factors. However, in United States, several clinics and health departments offer low cost or even free prenatal care for teenage mothers. Such departments offer full confidentiality and assure the patient that their family will not get awareness about the incident.
Emotional Effects of Teen Pregnancy
A child born to teen mother is less likely to develop proper cognitive stimulation. This just happens because of poor health care and improper nutrition of the teen mother at prenatal stage. After delivery, such mothers also prefer to leave their baby to minimize the chances of adverse effects of teen pregnancy on the family. Moreover, when grown up, such children may suffer through high rates of abuse and ignorance. They are socially unacceptable and neglected children because of the fact that they have no family at all. Most of the times, it also happens that such children develop poor intellect and achieve low academic success in life.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teen pregnancy is a pregnancy in female human-beings who are below the age of twenty years. Teen pregnancy should be highly discouraged has it has effect on the teenage mother and the baby born. The teen mother may face complications such as premature labor, medical complication during the pregnancy period, at child birth or after child birth and are likely to drop out of school. Teen pregnancy is highly influenced with; drug and alcohol usage among the teens, lack of good education and parental guidance, high age difference for those in relationships, sexual abuse, dating violence, the environment the teen was brought up in, lack of contraception, and traditions that result into early marriages.
Firstly, drug and alcohol usage among the teens which is mostly as a result of peer influence from other teenagers or adults. Alcohol and drugs influence teenagers to indulge in unplanned sexual activities and other risky doings including unprotected sex and this eventually results in teenage pregnancies. Increased drug and alcohol usage among the teens has resulted in significant increase in the rate of teen pregnancy. The rate of pregnancy among teens who use drugs and alcohol is higher than among teens who do not use.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Secondly, lack of good education and parental guidance has also contributed to increased teen pregnancy. Most parents and people avoid talking to teens about sex and at times they give false guidance regarding sex matters and they highly discourage the teens of taking part in any discussions on sex. The lack of information on sex and sexual activities exposes the teens to risks when they get involved in the sex activities yet they do not have clear understanding about sex. The result of lack of education is early and unwanted teen pregnancy. Thirdly, the gap in age for those in relationships. The teens are mostly exploited by old men who mostly lure them with monetary substances. Teen girls who date men who are older than then usually get pregnant before they attain their womanhood thus teen girls engaging older men and mostly adult men are likely to get pregnant as compared to teen girls who are engaging men of their age.
In conclusion, people must take a collective responsibility of talking to the teens about pregnancy and relationships so that they will be aware of whatever that occur if they are in any relationship.
During Kenya’s national school’s exams, an alarming number of girls were reported to be pregnant or in labor, and so couldn’t take the exam. In just one county, 72 girls taking the exams were pregnant while 38 gave birth before the test. The Conversation Africa’s Molina Snooper asked Michael Mutua to shed light on why so many girls are falling pregnant and what measures there are to support them.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
What is the prevalence of pregnancy in schools in Kenya?
Cases of pregnancy among young girls are high. Teen pregnancy and motherhood rates stand at 18%. About one in every five adolescent girls (aged 15 to 19) has either had a live birth or is pregnant with her first child. Rates increase with age: from 3% among girls at 15 years old to 40% among girls at 19 years.
But these figures could be higher as there’s no accurate data on pregnant girls younger than 15.
The consequences of pregnancy at such a young age in Kenya aren’t good. The girls usually either drop out of school to have the child or take the risk of having an unsafe abortion.
Why are girls getting pregnant?
In Kenya, about 11% of teenagers are having sex before their 15th birthday. The rates in Uganda are about the same – with about 10% of adolescents have had sex.
The number goes up dramatically as young girls get deeper into their teens: in Kenya, an estimated 47% of teens are already sexually active before the age of 18 – the legal age of consent.
Sexual activity has been encouraged by the proliferation of mobile phones, which can encourage youth to be more sexually promiscuous because of “sexting” or access to porn.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Another factor is that there isn’t proper sex education. In Kenya, conservative attitudes and traditional values tend to be the norm and adults aren’t open to talking about sex or the idea of sex before marriage. This means young people don’t get the education they need to make informed sexual choices.
They’re also not taught about contraception which makes them less likely to use them. The use of contraceptives can drastically reduce teen pregnancy. But in Kenya, contraceptive use among teens has been consistently low, increasing to just 10% in 2014 from 6% five years earlier.
What type of support do these girls have during and after pregnancy?
The girls have very little support.
There’s a huge amount of social stigma that young girls face when they get pregnant before marriage. So a large number resort to abortion. But because abortion is illegal in Kenya, the girls use unqualified abortion service providers, often in unsafe facilities. The risk of an unsafe abortion is higher among this age group than any other.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
If they choose to keep the baby, because of the nurse or doctors moralistic views, they face discrimination at the communities and health care facilities. These facilities also don’t have services – like psycho social support – to meet the special needs of teen mothers.
What are their future prospects like? Do schools take them back in?
One of the immediate social consequences of teenage pregnancy is school dropout –between 10,000 and 13,000 girls leave school each year as a result out of about six million girls enrolled in school.
In 1996 Kenya introduced a school re-entry policy that aimed to ensure a return to school for all pregnant girls soon after weaning their babies. But this is weakly implemented as there’s a mismatch between policy and practice, with many heads of schools not aware of the policy. The policy also doesn’t have enough financial support to be implemented – there’s not enough money to train teachers or principals on how to reintegrate young mothers.
A lack of financial and moral support from their parents, coupled with the shame they experience, are also key factors that prevent them from going back to school.
What should be done to reduce the number of pregnancies?
Comprehensive and age-appropriate sexuality education is key and should be made available to adolescents and youth, from about the age of six years old.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Rwanda, for example, introduced a new sexuality education program-me a couple of years ago. This was supported by a teacher-training program me in 1,508 secondary schools that covered the new curriculum and how to teach it.
But this won’t be easy for Kenyan schools to accept because of deep-rooted conservative attitudes in the society.
The school re-entry program-me must also be revamped to support young mothers if they do get better. It needs to move beyond being just a policy and legal framework into a project that builds social acceptability and tolerance among various actors like; teachers, school administrators, and parents. It must also include stronger links between schools and the health system. This will build an environment that supports continued education among adolescents faced with early pregnancies.
Teen Pregnancy Overview

Teen pregnancy is an important issue for several reasons. For example, there are health risks for the baby and children born to teenage mothers are more likely to suffer health, social, and emotional problems than children born to older mothers. Also, women who become pregnant during their teens are at increased risk for medical complications, such as premature labor, and social consequences.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the teen birthrate in the United States was 13.5 births for every 1,000 teens in 2009. In 2013, early estimates put the birthrate at 12.5—a decrease of about 7.5 percent.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Since 1990, pregnancy rates in teenage girls aged 15 to 17 declined by almost 50 percent and pregnancy rates in older teens decreased by about 33 percent. Pregnancies in girls 15 to 17 accounted for more than one-quarter of all teen pregnancies in 2012, Recent studies show that although teen pregnancies continuing to decline in the United States, rates for African American teens and Hispanic teens are two to three times higher than in Caucasian teens.
In April 2013, the CDC reported that nearly one in five teen births is a repeat birth—meaning that it’s at least the second birth for the teenage mother. Although the repeat teen birth rate in the United States declined by more than 6 percent between 2007 and 2010, it remains high—especially in American Indian/Alaskan Natives (21.6 percent), Hispanics (20.9 percent), and non-Hispanic African Americans (20.4 percent). In Caucasian teens, the repeat birth rate is 14.8 percent.
Studies show that although most teen parents who are sexually active use contraception during the postpartum period, only about 22 percent use “most effective” birth control (> 99 percent effective). Babies born as result of a repeat teen pregnancy are even more likely to be born premature—early and at a low birth weight.
Declining teen pregnancy rates are thought to be attributed to more effective birth control practice, newer methods of birth control (e.g., long-acting, reversible contraception), and decreased sexual activity among teens.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Still, teenage pregnancy rates remain high and approximately 1 million teenage girls become pregnant each year in the United States and about 13 percent of U.S. births involve teen mothers. To lower teen pregnancy rates, older children must be educated about sex and sexuality and about the consequences of pregnancy.Consequences of Teen Pregnancy

Teenage births are associated with lower annual income for the mother. Eighty percent of teen mothers must rely on welfare at some point.
Teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school. Only about one-third of teen mothers obtain a high school diploma.
Teenage pregnancies are associated with increased rates of alcohol abuse and substance abuse, lower educational level, and reduced earning potential in teen fathers.
In the United States, the annual cost of teen pregnancies from lost tax revenues, public assistance, child health care, foster care and involvement with the criminal justice system is estimated to be about $7 billion.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Teenage pregnancy has been rising despite of the initiation of programs to help stop the occurrence of teenage pregnancy. What seems to have gone wrong is the lack of importance given to the emotional effects of teenage pregnancy, which are:
Adolescents do not usually have a plan of getting pregnant when they engage in sexual behaviour. It is their inability to make a note of the consequences of unplanned indulgence in sex that puts them at risk. It is after the teenager has realized that she is pregnant that she discovers the possible downsides to it at a tender age. The fact that most teenage girls are unaware of the process that pregnancy is, they end up not taking care of themselves and indulging in bad habits such as smoking and drinking to lay the depressed phase off.
Family Hostilities
A teenage girl living with parents may find it even more difficult to cope with pregnancy for she will be drawn by the guilt of having let her parents down. Besides, most families are aversion to the idea of teenage pregnancy and instead of supporting the child, end up throwing unfriendly and disturbing remarks. This makes the pregnant teenager experience hostility from her parents or family members and make her feel as if she is far away from being taken care of. At such a juncture, a pregnant teenager may look for ways to kill herself or the baby, thereby enhancing the existing issue load.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Worries about the Future
When a teenager is pregnant, several uncertainties about the future may arise. The teenager may feel as if she doesn’t have enough knowledge base to be a mother and end up loading her brain with information available on the internet only to make it worse. She may start worrying about whether the father of the baby will follow-up with any support or whether she would be dealing with the baby herself.
When the pregnant teenager is stuck with in a hostile environment, she would begin to feel a blow at her self-esteem. A low self-esteem will keep the pregnant teenager from seeking medical attention, thereby increasing her risk of developing pregnancy complications at the time of birth. To get away from the hostile environment or be oblivious to its existence, the teenager finds solace in substance abuse, which further weakens her look after herself.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Emotional Effects

Worrying about the future is the most common emotional crisis a teen experiences when she becomes pregnant. When teens become pregnant they worry about not having enough knowledge to be a mother. (Bodeeb) The teen mom may also feel that her baby is impacting her education, life, and dreams for the future. While conducting my interviews, both teen moms went to independent study. They said that being in independent study was difficult because they weren’t able to stay as close in touch with friends and didn’t really have the high school experience. One of the teens I interviewed went from independent study then straight into a job because she needed money to support her baby. Usually when parents don’t support the Pregnancy, teens become more worried about their future and how they are going to fend for themselves. Most of the time education is put aside when a teenager becomes pregnant. Some may decide to leave high school. Usually teens that were planning on continuing their education and going to college will abandon the opportunity and instead focus on taking care of their baby and getting married. For one of my interviews the teen was definitely more in search of a husband or boyfriend to help her support the baby. She did not really care if the man was her baby’s father she just needed someone there to be with her through the process. She dropped out of independent study to work and had to abandon her dream of going to college. Most teens don’t stay in high school after becoming pregnant due to their appearance and how people might look and judge them; they mostly either drop out or go into independent study.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teens who are constantly abusing drugs and alcohol could potentially harm their babies. (Bodeeb) Alcohol is a common cause of teen pregnancy. Many stories of becoming pregnant follow the scenario of going to a party, getting drunk, having sex, and then regretting and worrying about what happened the next morning. Sometimes teens don’t remember exactly what happened since they were drunk causing them to never know who the teen father is. Most teens do not seek medical care during pregnancy because they are afraid to face the fact that they are pregnant and since the parents don’t care either they have no motivation to find help. Health risk during pregnancy can include: anemia, toxemia, high blood pressure, placenta previa, and premature birth of the baby. (Niriha) Medical help is really important because without it there can be crucial complications harming the pregnancy and the mothers health/ well being. (Bodeeb) Even though there are Morning After Pills and other contraceptives many teenagers don’t have access to get them. Many are either embarrassed or do not think that they will need them.
A normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. A baby delivered before 37 weeks is called a premature baby. (Niriha) Premature labor can be stopped by medications or rest. Most of the time the baby has to be delivered prematurely to keep the mother and baby healthy. Teens that have sex while pregnant and use latex condoms to prevent STDs can go up through the cervix infecting and causing harm to the baby. (Niriha) Pregnant teens that are pregnant, especially the ones that don’t have support from their parents; have a risk of not getting the right prenatal care. In the first few months of pregnancy parental care is really important. Prenatal care checks for medical complications for both the mother and the baby. It also makes sure the growth of the baby is normal, and fixes complications that occur during pregnancy fast. Prenatal vitamins with folic acid are important in helping to help prevent certain birth defects, such as neural tube defects. ( Niriha) Pregnant teens are at a higher risk of getting high blood pressure. They also have a higher risk of getting preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a severe medical condition that  combines excess urine protein and high blood pressure. This leads to swelling of a mother’s hands and face, and organ damage. (Niriha)Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
            Teen moms can become depressed throughout their pregnancy. Families and friends not supporting or giving negative feedback about pregnancy are main factors that could lead a teen into depression. Fluctuating hormones can also cause depression. Pregnant teens are at high risks of post partum depression. This type of depression starts after the delivery of the baby. Teens that feel sad either while pregnant or after delivering the baby should be able to have someone to talk to about it. Either with a doctor, family member, or anyone they can trust. Being depressed can cause problems with taking care of the new born baby and with their own development. This can always be treated, teens just need to be able to come out and look for help. (Niriha) Teens that have a hard time telling their parents about being pregnant often feel scared isolated and stressed out. This is also a major emotional effect. Without family support or any support at all teens that are pregnant have a difficult time eating healthy, exercising, and getting a good amount of rest. They also usually miss their prenatal visits. Having a close family member or friend or any trust ones supportive of your pregnancy is important in helping the teen get the support emotional and prenatal care they need. Also having at least one supportive person helps the teen mom stay healthy during her pregnancy.
            Once becoming pregnant a teen can go through an emotional crisis. Usually this means that the mom may not want the baby anymore leading to behaviors like attempting a self abortion or attempting suicide. When a teen becomes pregnant they may become very exhausted. Even though being exhausted is normal during any pregnancy teen should try to exercise and get a standard 8 hours or more sleep every night. (Bodeeb)Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
            During or after the baby is born teens may be faced with financial difficulties. Raising a baby is expensive. Teens who are not employed might struggle to cover the basic needs and expenses of having a baby. Usually after the baby is born the teen mom may not want or be willing to give the baby its undivided attention. This is because the teen may not be a responsible reliable mother due to being overwhelmed by constant needs of her baby. The teen may become annoyed with the lack of freedom and free time such as hanging out with friend, partying, and just free time in general. All of this due to having to take care of the baby. Also if the teen mom is not employed or doesn’t have parent support they most likely not be able to afford babysitters or daycare.( Bodeeb)
 Babies of teen parents may have a slower intellectual development and lower skill set scored at kindergarten. Babies can also develop ongoing medical and behavior issues. (Bodeeb)  50%  of children with teen parents are most likely to repeat a grade and more likely to not graduate high school. Only 77% of children with teen parents will receive a high school diploma compared to 89% of children with older parents. (Maynard) Childbearing, homelessness, juvenile delinquency, and incarceration are all things children born with a teen mom are likely to get involved in. (Maynard) Children with teen parents are usually sexually active by the age of 14 and are likely to become teen parents themselves. (Gutenberg) These children are also found to have more health problems but they only receive half the level of care. (Maynard) Fathers usually aren’t part of the family leaving only the teen mom and her child. 23,600 or 5% of children born to teen mothers will end up in foster care, partly due to higher rates of abuse. (George) The sons of teen mothers are 2.7 times more likely to be put in jail than the sons of older mothers. (Maynard) Between the ages of 12 and 16 5 % of children born to teen parents Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
run away.(Maynard)The child of an unmarried high school dropout mother is 10 times more likely to live in poverty than a mom who has graduated high school and has a steady job.  At age 24, 30% of children of teen parents are not in school or working, or actively looking for a job. (Have man)

“Psychological distress does not appear to be caused by teen childbearing, nor does it cause teen childbearing, except apparently among girls from poor households,” said Stefanie Moll born, Ph.D., an assistant professor of sociology at the Institute of Behavioral Science of the University of Colorado at Boulder.
The study, published in the September issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior, used data from two large long-term U.S. surveys that followed thousands of teen girls and women. Participants responded to items on symptoms associated with depression, such as how often they found things that did not usually bother them to be bothersome, how easily they could shake off feeling blue or whether they had trouble concentrating. The researchers did not use the term “depression,” which is a clinical diagnosis.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Only the combination of poverty and existing distress was a good predictor of teen pregnancy.
Previous studies had shown high levels of depression among teen mothers, but nationally representative studies had not examined if distress was present before the pregnancy and stresses of young motherhood.
“Psychologically distressed girls are at risk for teen childbearing and vice versa, even if the two things usually do not cause each other,” Moll born said. “This could help educators and clinicians identify at-risk adolescents.”
Looking for symptoms of depression or distress should be part of normal health screening for all teenagers, said Diane Merritt, M.D., director of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “Talking to teenagers about their sexuality and responsible behavior is key,” she said. Responsible behavior would include the use of birth control if the teenager were sexually active.
One of the best ways to prevent teen pregnancy is for teens to have long-term goals and good self-esteem, Merritt added.
High levels of depression have long-term negative consequences for both mothers and children, Moll born said. The higher levels of psychological distress in women who had teenage pregnancies continued well into adulthood, she added.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Teen Pregnancy Statistics

According to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 91 percent of all pregnancies of 15 to 17 year olds are unintended.

Less than one half of all states mandate sex education and for those that do, the consent often falls on the parent, leaving many young teens uneducated about sexual intercourse, the female reproductive system, and outcomes of unprotected sex — to include pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Causes of Teenage Pregnancy

While there are many factors that influence teenage pregnancy rates, the number one cause for teenage pregnancy will never change — unprotected sex. The United States saw a drop in teen pregnancy of 7 percent from 2016 to 2017, but the U.S. number of teen pregnancies is still higher than in most industrialized countries.

The drop was seen across all racial groups, but there are still disparities that make some girls more susceptible to others. The CDC reports that of those teenagers who engaged in sexual intercourse, 46 percent did not use a condom and 14 percent did not use any method to prevent pregnancy.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Reasons for Teenage Pregnancy

While there is one cause contributing to unintended pregnancy, there are many reasons for teenage pregnancy. When looking at the statistics for teen pregnancy, the reasons leading up to a teen having sex must be addressed to get to the heart of the issue.

Peer Pressure

During adolescence, teenagers often feel pressure to make friends and fit in with their peers. Often, peers have more influence over teenagers than the parent, even if the relationship with parent-child is good. Many times these teens let their friends influence their decision to have sex even when they do not fully understand the consequences associated with it.

Peer pressure has the potential to cloud good reasoning skills and engage in risk-taking behavior that might not otherwise be present. Teenagers may have sex as a way to appear cool and sophisticated, but in some cases the end result is an unplanned teen pregnancy. Psychology Today indicates that one-third of boys feel pressured to have sex, compared with 23 percent of girls.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Family Dynamics

Teen girls are more likely to get pregnant if they have limited or no guidance from their parents. When a teen does not feel that she can talk to her parents about sex, either because they forbid sex talk or because they are not around, she will more than likely turn to friends for direction on whether or not to have sex. This can result in misinformation and possible teen pregnancy.

In addition, daughters of teenage mothers were 51 percent more likely to become pregnant as a teen, according to research published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Girls between the ages of 14 to 19 were at 3 times higher risk for teenage pregnancy when they had an older sister with a teenage pregnancy. This indicates the influence of family members on adolescent and teenage girls specifically.

Glamorization of Pregnancy

The allure of being pregnant is more of a modern reason for teen pregnancy. With most of teen pregnancies being unintended, there are some that are not. The movie industry and the media contribute to teenage pregnancy by glamorizing teen pregnancy in news stories and movies. Movies that depict teen pregnancy as something to be desired encourage teens to engage in reckless sexual activity, according to ABC’s “Good Morning America.”Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

During adolescence, teens become more focused on their appearance and how their peers perceive them. They want to be seen as part of the group, so if teen pregnancy is viewed as acceptable in their school or amongst their friends, they may seek to become pregnant as a way to gain social acceptance.

Popular shows like MTV’s Teen Mom dramatizes the lives of teen moms as they work through relationships, pregnancies, and motherhood as young women. This could put a false expectation on teenage girls that their life may be depicted as a carefree television show to gain attention and social media followers.

Lack of Knowledge

Teenagers who are uneducated about sex are more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. Some teens do not fully understand the biological and emotional aspects associated with having sex, according to The Daily Record.

These teens may get incorrect information from friends, videos, sitcoms and/or movies. Many times, teens do not have the knowledge needed to make informed and responsible decisions about whether or not to engage in sexual activity and the consequences thereafter.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

It is not only the teenage girl who needs to be educated about sex and how pregnancy occurs, but boys also. The CDC recommends that all teens between the ages of 11 to 15, depending on sexual maturity have a reproductive visit with their healthcare provider. In this visit, the provider can counsel on the benefits of delaying sexual activity, contraceptive options, and give the child the opportunity to ask questions in a safe and open environment with correct and concise answers.

Sexual Abuse or Rape

Teens can become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse or rape. The Guttmacher Institute states that girls who experienced sexual abuse were three times as likely to be pregnant before the age of 18. The damaging psychological abuse can make a teen more susceptible to becoming pregnant.

Low self-esteem, promiscuity, and decreased locus of control are all reasons why some teenagers are more likely to become pregnant.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Substance Abuse

Substance abuse by anyone can cause an unintended pregnancy, but for teens, drug and alcohol abuse can have lifelong consequences. Drinking lowers a teen’s ability to control their impulses and research has linked substance abuse to risky sexual behavior. The CDC reports that 19 percent of teens who had sex used drugs or alcohol before engaging in sexual intercourse.

Not only does alcohol and drug abuse lower inhibitions for the teen, but it also impairs their adherence to contraceptive methods, such as condoms and birth control. Research published in Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America indicates that drug and alcohol abuse can lead to failure to recognize an unplanned pregnancy, a delay in prenatal care, and health risks for mom and baby.

Socioeconomic Status

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists indicate that teenage pregnancy is more prominent among adolescents who are at an economic disadvantage. Research published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth found girls living in lower income neighborhoods with older sisters who became pregnant as teens, put them at greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Conversely, researchers found lower rates of teen pregnancy in more prosperous areas of their study.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

The CDC cites the reasons for lower income teens at a higher risk for pregnancy as income inequality, education, neighborhood disorder, racial segregation, and fewer opportunities for positive youth programs. Geography also seems to play a role in teen pregnancies, with southern states having higher rates than the northern U.S., specifically New England states. In 2016, Arkansas had the highest birth rates of teens aged 15 to 19, with Massachusetts having the lowest.

Barriers to Contraception

For teens that have decided to become sexually active, there may be barriers to obtaining or using contraception. One of the biggest barriers is access to healthcare and the cost of birth control. If the parent or child does not have health insurance or immediate access to a medical provider, it may not be possible to obtain long acting methods of birth control, such as an IUD, which also requires a medical appointment.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

For birth control, other than condoms, there may be side effects associated with use and this may cause concern for the teenager and parent.

Negative feelings about contraception between the teenager and her partner can be a significant barrier to preventing an unwanted pregnancy. Poor communication and partner resistance to birth control are cited as additional reasons by the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America.

Teenage Mothers

When a young women begins her period and even before, she begins to ovulate, which means she is able to get pregnant. Just because an adolescent CAN get pregnant, does not mean it is safe to get pregnant. According to the American Pregnancy Association, girls who are pregnant before the age of 15 run the risk of having per-mature birth or low birth weight infants, high blood pressure, anemia, and nutrient deficiencies.

Think you might be pregnant? First talk to a trusting adult and find out for sure. There are few signs immediately that indicate pregnancy, usually a missed period is the first sign, which can be 2 to 3 weeks into a pregnancy.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

The Mayo Clinic suggests waiting more than one week to do a pregnancy test. The body produces a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and that is what the pregnancy test is testing for. It can take weeks after fertilization for HCG to be high enough to detect.

Headaches, cramping, fatigue, and nausea are early symptoms of pregnancy you may be experiencing. If you have any of these symptoms and you’ve missed a period, speak with a parent, trusted adult, teacher, or call your doctor. Early prenatal care can ensure a healthy pregnancy for mom and and baby.

What Can Be Done to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy?

The CDC found that only 65 percent of girls and 53 percent of boys had received any type of formal sex education on both abstinence and contraception. Even lower, 44 percent of girls and 27 percent of boys have had a conversation with their parents about sex, abstinence, and birth control. Adolescents and teenagers at the highest risk for unplanned pregnancy should be the target for education and support.

Not only should youth be educated on abstinence and contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, but also make the teenager’s life a part of the conversation. Find out what their perception of risky behavior entails and discover new ways to reduce the amount of risk taking activities in regards to substance abuse and sexual behavior.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Life and education goals, healthy and safe relationships, and planning for the future should also be topics addressed in a mature and helpful way. If necessary, seek out community or faith based programs that can help in fostering a nurturing and non-judgmental voice on the subject.

Reducing the first unwanted pregnancy for a teenager is often the focus, but here are teens who have multiple unwanted pregnancies. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services indicates that 1 in 6, or 17 percent of births to all 15 to 19 year old girls is a subsequent birth, meaning the teen has already been pregnant at least once. Government programs are available for teen moms and dads who are struggling with multiple teen pregnancies.
The reason for lack of prenatal care is usually delayed pregnancy testing, denial or even fear of telling others about the pregnancy. Most states have a health department or University clinic where prenatal care is free or low cost and patient confidentiality is very important, meaning no one can tell the teen mother’s family.
Teenage mothers are less likely to gain adequate weight during their pregnancy, leading to Low Birth weight which is associated with infant and childhood disorders and a high rate of infant mortality. Low-birth weight babies are more likely to have organs that are not fully developed, which can result in complications such as bleeding in the brain, respiratory distress syndrome, and intestinal problems.
Children born to teenage mothers are less likely to receive proper nutrition, health care, and cognitive and social stimulation. As a result, they may have an underdeveloped intellect and attain lower academic achievement.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Effects of teen pregnancies on the children involved. These children are far more likely to grow up in poverty, to have more health problems, to suffer from higher rates of abuse and neglect, to fail in school, to become teen mothers, to commit delinquent acts and adult crimes, and to incur failed adult marriages and other relationships.
The burdens of early childbearing on disadvantaged teens are undeniable. Trying to untangle the factors which contribute to teenage pregnancy from its effects, however, leads to a “which came first, the chicken or the egg?” dilemma. Educational failure, poverty, unemployment and low self-esteem are understood to be negative outcomes of early childbearing. These circumstances also contribute to the likelihood of teen pregnancy.
In general, teen mothers have much lower levels of educational attainment than other women, which severely limit their career options and sharply increase their likelihood of economic dependency. Only 70% of teen mothers complete high school or earn a GED, and far fewer Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Risk Factors. Although it is not inevitable, some life circumstances place girls at higher risk of becoming teen mothers. These include poverty, poor school performance, growing up in a single parent household, having a mother who was an adolescent mother, or having a sister who has become pregnant.
Teenage pregnancies have become a public health issue because of their observed negative effects on perinatal outcomes and long-term morbidity. The association of young maternal age and long-term morbidity is usually confounded, however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, and single marital status among teenage mothers.
Children of teenage mothers have significantly higher odds of placement in certain special education classes and significantly higher occurrence of milder education problems, but when maternal education, marital status, poverty level, and race are controlled, the detrimental effects disappear and even some protective effects are observed.
Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern in both developed and developing countries. It is defined as any pregnancy that ends before the age of 20 years. About 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years old give birth each year, which is about 11% of all births worldwide [1], and this does not include births among girls aged under 15 years.  The highest teenage pregnancy rates, which are often associated with early marriage, are in sub-Saharan Africa, where one in every four girls has given birth by the age of 18 years [2]. In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, half of all girls are married before the age of 15 years. Many are engaged even younger and sent to live with their future husband’s family [3].  If current levels of global child marriages hold, 14.2 million girls annually will marry too young, and many will be aged under 15 years [4].Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
South Sudan is among the top ten countries with highest prevalence of teenage pregnancy, the others being Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Bangladesh [4].  A third of South Sudanese girls start childbearing at ages 15-19 years, and 3 percent have had a live birth before the age of 15 years [5].            The South Sudan constitution, that defines a child as anybody below 18 years, prohibits forced marriage but does not specify a minimum age for marriage [6]. South Sudan’s child marriage rites may be based on ancient traditions, but their practice today can be blamed on the country’s contradictory laws and their weak enforcement. In South Sudan, teenage girls are more likely to be married than in school [7].        
Worldwide, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy include: dowry payment, poverty, low educational status, poor quality, and access to, reproductive health services, peer pressure, tradition and culture [8]. The aim of our study was to explore the factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Juba, and its effects on the young mothers, in order to gain an insight on how to reduce teenage pregnancy in South Sudan.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Materials and Method
This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH) between September 1 and October 30, 2015. Fifty pregnant teenagers were randomly selected from the antenatal clinic register book using systematic random sampling.          Data were collected anonymously from consenting respondents using a structured questionnaire through direct interview, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software. The recommendations were given to JTH, and the girls were counseled about the effects and risks of teenage pregnancy after their interviews.

Fortunately, teen pregnancy has declined in the United States over the past few years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports teen pregnancy is at an historic low, but the reason isn’t exactly clear.

Some experts suspect teens are delaying or reducing sexual activity. Others believe teens are becoming more educated about birth control methods and they’re being more proactive about preventing pregnancy.

But teen pregnancy does still happen. And while most parents would like to think their teen would never have unprotected sex during adolescence, it can happen ​in any family.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

There are certain risk factors however that make some teens more likely to become pregnant than others. Educating yourself about those risk factors can help you take steps to mitigate the risks.

Individual Risk Factors

Teens who experience any of the following may be at a higher risk of teenage pregnancy:

Drug and alcohol use
Lack of knowledge about sex or contraception
Lack of goals for the future
Low self-esteem
Poor school performance
Having sex at a young age
Being the victim of sexual abuse
Negative attitude towards using contraception
Ambivalence about having a child

Social Risk Factors

A teen’s friends can play a big role in the decision to become sexually active. Here are some social risk factors to be on the lookout for:

Pressure from peers to have sex
Dating at an early age
Dating older people
Friends who are sexually active
Poor peer relationships

Family Risk Factors

While you can’t always control everything about your family, you can take steps to address some risk factors. Here are the risk factors that could put your teen at risk of teenage pregnancy:

Poor parental supervision
Limited communication between parents and teen
Negative family interactions
Single-parent families
Significant unresolved conflict between family members
Family history of teenage pregnancies Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Preventing Teen Pregnancy

Even if you can’t get rid of all the risk factors your teen may face, you can take steps to reduce the likelihood your teen will become a parent while still in high school. The most important thing you can do is talk to your teen about sex.

No matter whether your message is one of abstinence, or delaying sex until the right time, talk about birth control. Make sure your teen has the facts about how to prevent an unplanned pregnancy.

Whether you have a son or a daughter, ongoing conversations about sex are imperative. Don’t assume your teen isn’t having sex or that your teen isn’t interested in romantic relationships. Remember, most parents think it won’t happen in their family.

Talk about your values and your expectations. If you make it clear that you disapprove of sex during high school, your teen may be less likely to become sexually active.

But you should also make it clear that your teen can come to you with questions or concerns. The last thing you want is for your teen to hide things from you.

Hold open discussions and allow your teen to ask questions. And most of all, help your teen become a well-rounded individual. Teens who have lots of interests, activities, and goals are less likely to become sexually active at an early age.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

Don’t depend on the sex education programs in your child’s school to teach kids everything they need to know about pregnancy and sex. Many teens still belief common myths like, “I can’t get pregnant the first time I have sex,” or they believe that it will never happen to them.

Establish rules about dating that will keep your teen safe. Make sure your teen is well-supervised. That doesn’t mean you need to chaperone all of your child’s dates but you should make rules that limit your teen’s opportunities to engage in sexual activity.

Keep in mind that technology has changed teen romance. Many teens spend hours texting and sharing photos online, which can give them a feeling of closeness to someone that they don’t necessarily spend a lot of time with in-person.

Finally, give your teen opportunities to speak the doctor alone. Sometimes, teens who are afraid to ask their parents questions about sex or contraception will be much more willing to bring up the subject with a medical professional.

Types of pregnancy
In general pregnancy is defined as the carrying of one or more embryo in the womb of a female. Types of pregnancies however relate to the age of the pregnant woman, the number of embryo she is carrying, and other critical conditions faced by pregnant woman. Pregnancy can be however be divided in to some types and categories and there are special instructions your doctor will be giving you and will tell you what to look for and what to do and what not to do in the type of Pregnancy you are having. The doctor may also suggest you some tips about pregnancy and to have a session with a nutritionist which can guide you that what sort of foods you must eat in order to have a healthy baby.
Early pregnancy
Conception is the beginning and the earliest stage of the adventure of pregnant woman. The pregnancy starts when an egg cell from the mother joins with a sperm of a male in order for it to be fertile.  This process of fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes. Immediately after fertilization the egg starts the process of cell division starts and after a few days scientists have observed that it will be a blast cyst a bundle of millions of cells which are all ready to perform their respective duties and a process of a birth of a new human being starts. A mother should become very careful at the early pregnancy stage and some routines of life need to be changed and if mother is an athlete or does extreme exercises she must switch her routine to moderate specially at early stages of pregnancy because at this stage their is a greater risk. Some doctors also advice not to eat fish during early stages of pregnancy because some types of fish are high in Mercury which is not good specially at this stage.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
First pregnancy
A first time mother usually becomes very anxious and nervous about their pregnancies. The reason is that the experience they are going to go through will be the first time experience and they do not know what they should expect of their pregnancy. They usually have a lot of questions and need pregnancy tips like what food they should eat and how they can can adjust their life style and many more questions. It is therefore advised to attend seminars and classes specifically designed to give more and more knowledge to a girl who is becoming a mother for the first time in her life. On most of the classes like this they also invite the spouse or both parents to attend classes where they are free to ask all the questions they have in their mind about pregnancy and how to cope with the coming time ahead and will guide them what to expect at First pregnancy. Therefore, it is very important to learn yourself and be knowledgeable about the whole process and stages of pregnancy and also know what to expect at every stage of pregnancy which include including pregnancy symptoms, complications of pregnancy, fetus development, diet while pregnant, checkups and followups, tips for healthy pregnancy, and almost each and every other thing about different stages because every mother will have to go through these stages. Another very important thing that can be done is to talk to your friends and fellows who have been mother. They may be able to give you useful tips about pregnancy however this must be keep in mind that every pregnancy is slightly different from other so the more you know and the more people you have talked to about pregnancy the more better it is.
Second pregnancy
From the name it is obvious that in this case you are having first child already being in the home. Although as it have already been discussed earlier that every pregnancy is different and it is not different from person to person but it can be different for the same mother too. If the mother already has the babies they already know what to expect of their pregnancy but if their children are quite young then the second or third etc pregnancies can be more troublesome and hectic because mothers are also giving time to their other young ones and they are already tired and are sleep deprived. This can put extra pressure the pregnant mothers have to cope with. In that cases it is usually very beneficial if pregnant mothers have some family support available which can assist them with their older children Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
New pregnancy
In case of new most married women will like to experience and enjoy pregnancy, but very few know about different symptoms for indication of conception. There can be many indications of pregnancy but the most important and the first to be noted mostly is a missed period If this is a scenario for you then in such circumstances other symptoms may become very important as your indicators to pregnancy. There are some pregnancy strips available in the market which helps in testing. This test however is not 100 percent accurate but if it yields a positive result then you have to rush family doctor so that the blood tests can be arranged as the blood tests for pregnancy are usually quite accurate.
Teen Pregnancy
Teenage pregnancy is a big problem and the reason it may pose many problems is that teens not be physically fit owing to the fact they are still growing themselves and their bodies may create additional problems in term of demands for a pregnancy. Teen age girls cannot provide early and regular prenatal care, which make those conditions more problematic. Moreover some teen age girls may feel more emotional distress about their pregnancies because of their younger age. Owing and for this very reason pregnant teens are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to a serious condition for both mother and child.
Pregnancy After Age 35
Pregnancy after the age of thirty-five is also complicated but this has become actually much more common than it used to be. The reason that the late pregnancies or pregnancies after the age of 35 has become more common in today societies is that women today remain waiting until they have finished college and started a career to settle down and start a family. This late pregnancy can create certain complications on the health of pregnant mothers because rate of the incidence of different conditions like birth defects and difficult pregnancies has been observed to be high then the young age mothers.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Pregnancy after Age 40
There are many genuine reasons why you may not have a child until the age of forty. It may be you have married at a later age or focused on your career before having a family. It is therefore advised that if a family or children are desired it is better to have them at early stages of life because at early age a person is more powerful and energetic and can handle pregnancy complications and problems quite easily rather than a 40 year old mother. The problems of having conception will go on increasing with this age.
Pregnancy After 50
Pregnancy after 50 is very rare and it is definitely not recommended. In fact, you’ll have a hard time finding a doctor to assist you in having a child at that age. It is not only a huge risk to your own health but pregnancy after the age of 50 is also risky  for a child yet to be born.
Late pregnancy
This trend of late pregnancy is becoming very common however; the married couples must know the consequences of late pregnancy. With the age the ability of a women to get fertile gets diminished and most of the women can not pregnant after 40. There are exceptions however and although there might be certain reasons behind these phenomena like career development, yet this trend should be discouraged owing to the complications of aging.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Lupus Pregnancy
This lupus pregnancy is not an easy pregnancy for the mother as well as child and is not safe but this does not means that women with Lupus cannot be a mother at all. She can become a mother but the complications and the risks for this type of pregnancy are much more than a normal one. Since it has to do with your immune system and can affect your vital organs. Lupus pregnancy mothers are at a greater risk of having a baby prematurely and they have to be extra cautious about their health and their baby development as it may cause stillbirth. These type of mothers have to have additional ultrasounds during their pregnancy cycle to make sure that the baby growth is going normally. Moreover devices like Stethoscope can be used after 20 weeks of pregnancy to listen to the heart beat of the baby. Also they must keep an eye on the constant movement of the babies which must be at least few times a day. If for some reason they do not feel the movement for a couple of days then this is quite serious and they must rush to the doctor.
Twin Pregnancy
Frequency of twin pregnancy is increasing these days and there are certain reasons and explanation to this. Women who will be having multiple births needs to be very careful because there is a more chance that these types of delivers would end up with surgery or C section as mostly their is a problem with the directions of head of the babies and moreover the doctors or gynecologists would not take any risks with twin pregnancies as they are way riskier than single child pregnancy so they can quickly ask mothers than they must go for a surgery.   Different studies in different medical journals have shown an increase in women who deliver more than one baby by 59% in the last 25 years. There are more than one reasons and explanations as to why are women having more twins at present times compared to the twins they very having few decades. Genetics can be one reason which can contribute to having twin babies pregnancy but the more important reasons is fertility treatments and options like IVF which has seen an increasing trend
Ectopic or tubal pregnancy
In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized ovum grows outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. This condition is not good and there is a danger of life in this sort of pregnancy and a mother should immediately consult with his family doctor and will most probably be referred to a Gynecologist. If a woman collapses in early pregnancy or suffers pain in her lower abdomen then the baby can’t survive and often does not develop at all.
High risk pregnancy
When your doctor tells you that to conceive a child is dangerous for both mother and child the pregnancy is called a high risk pregnancy. There can be many reasons for higher risk pregnancies and the reasons can be some thing like Mother having high diabetes level to many other reasons. High risk pregnancies would require a mother to have more courage and family support so that she can handle the situation with a positive attitude.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.
The rate of teenage pregnancy continues to rise despite increased access to contraception and sex education programs for teenagers. 35% of sexually active female teenagers become pregnant before age 19; 59% of those pregnant teenagers continue their pregnancies through delivery. Approximately 90% of adolescent mothers in the US keep their babies. Adolescent pregnancy is a multifaceted problem with grave consequences involving a higher incidence of physical risks to mother and infant and the potential for long term detrimental psychological and sociological effects on infant and parents. Based on the assumption that beliefs have a powerful influence on behavior, data were gathered from urban pregnant teenagers regarding their beliefs related to pregnancy and its prevention. In depth interviews were conducted with 20 Native American Indian women (1/2 from an upper Midwestern city and 1/2 from a city in the Pacific Northwest). 18 white and 17 black women from the same Pacific Northwest city were also interviewed. Certain patterns emerged that indicated intercultural differences in the group. The areas of difference included beliefs about prevention of pregnancy and contraception, significance of being a mother at an early age, and kinds of support systems available within their social network. These beliefs were influential in their becoming pregnant as well as during their pregnancy. All of the young women were knowledgeable about contraceptives and their availability. Beliefs about them and when they should be used, and how they worked varied among the 3 cultural groups. American Indian women did not believe contraception should be used until after the 1st baby was born. The black teenager believed that contraception was appropriate, but birth control pills and IUDs were unacceptable because they altered the menstrual cycle and thus would cause illness. Beliefs of the white women stemmed from their religious backgrounds. The American Indian women believed that within their culture, high value was placed on early pregnancy and becoming pregnant validated one’s feminine role. Black women did not perceive negative sanctions within their culture if they did not meet the ideal norm of education followed by employment and marriage and children. Becoming a mother at a young age, although not highly desirable, had a fairly high level of acceptance. The white women believed that pregnancy at a young age was undesirable. When the background of the client and the practitioner differ, practitioners must be aware of folk beliefs to allow open communication. When these beliefs are assessed and incorporated into a care plan, a more effective program for pregnancy prevention will result.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure – types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
“It is not harmful to teach teens about birth control in addition to abstinence,” said study lead author Pamela Kohler, a program manager at the University of Washington in Seattle.
Parents and educators have long argued over whether students should get instruction in birth control or simply learn how to say no. At issue is which approach will best postpone sex.
Kohler and colleagues examined the results of the 2002 national survey and focused on heterosexual teens ages 15 to 19. The findings — based on responses from 1,719 teens — appear in the Journal of Adolescent Health.
After reviewing the results, which researchers weighted to reflect the U.S. population better, the researchers found that one in four teens received abstinence-only education. Nine percent — particularly the poor and those in rural areas — received no sex education at all. The other two-thirds received comprehensive instruction with discussion of birth control.
Teens who received comprehensive sex education were 60 percent less likely to report becoming pregnant or impregnating someone than those who received no sex education.
The likelihood of pregnancy was 30 percent lower among those who had abstinence-only education compared to those who received no sex education, but the researchers deemed that number statistically insignificant because few teens fit into the categories that researchers analyzed.Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper
While they also did not reach statistical significance, other survey results suggested that comprehensive sex education — but not abstinence-based sex education — slightly reduced the likelihood of teens having engaged in vaginal intercourse. Neither approach seemed to reduce the likelihood of reported cases of sexually transmitted diseases, but again the results were not statistically significant.
The findings support comprehensive sex education, Kohler said.
“There was no evidence to suggest that abstinence-only education decreased the likelihood of ever having sex or getting pregnant.”
Don Operario, Ph.D., a professor at Oxford University in England, said the study provides “further compelling evidence” about the value of comprehensive sex education and the “ineffectiveness” of the abstinence-only approach.
Still, the study does not show how educators should implement comprehensive sex education in the classroom, said Opera, who studies sex education. “We need a better understanding of the most effective ways of delivering this type of education in order to maximize audience comprehension and community acceptability.”Adolescent Pregnancy Essay Paper

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