Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
A pharmacology course should prepare the advanced practice nursing student to understand the cellular mechanisms of drug action and physiologic outcomes (pharmacodynamics); mechanisms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (pharmacokinetics); and the clinical use of drugs in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease (pharmacotherapeutics). The goal of a pharmacology course for advance nursing practice is to provide practitioners with knowledge that provides a rational basis for pharmacologic management of patients with complex health problems. A pharmacology course should teach the student the principles of pharmacology along with the process of pharmacologic reasoning. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
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This course is designed to provide the nurse practitioner student with the information and skills to initiate and monitor drug therapy. This course will integrate advanced knowledge regarding the clinical application of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, techniques and methods of drug prescribing, approaches to data collection and problem-solving with discussions about drug therapy for common acute and chronic diseases. Emphasis will be on the practical application of important concepts used in clinical practice for clients across the lifespan. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
The Advanced Pharmacology Across the Lifespan course was developed with the Advanced Practice Nurse in mind. The course will prepare you to be proficient in diagnosing, prescribing, and managing a wide range of disease processes. This course was developed in response to Ohio House Bill 216 legislation that requires all advance practice nurses to be licensed. This course is also useful for APRNs who are transferring into the state and need to establish or renew their Ohio license with prescriptive authority. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
The program includes 26 self-paced modules that include narrated lectures, handouts that can be downloaded and printed for reference and quizzes that are graded pass/fail. Sections can be retaken, and there is no additional homework. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Upon completion of the program, you will receive a certification of completion and 45.78 hours of continuing education credit. Contact hours are awarded commensurate with participation.
What you will learn
Law and rule
Adverse drug reactions
Gastrointestinal and genitourinary pharmacology
Nervous system pharmacology
Immune modulators and immunotherapy
Pharmacologic considerations in special populations
Place of pharmacology in human’s life
Pharmacology is a biomedical scientific branch that studies drugs and their actions on the human body. It deals with physiologic active moiety, and all of these active moieties which are used in pharmacology are called drugs. This is exactly that science which concerns with all experiments, researches and preparations before pills, syrups, ointments and other pharmaceutical forms come in retail to the drugstores. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
The importance of this science can hardly be exaggerated, since it is referred to the human health and person’s well-being. Drugs can treat different illnesses and improve general physical and mental state of a person, but at the same time their wrong usage, mistaken dosage or at least minimally incorrect calculations can lead to unacceptable health risks. That’s why the objective of pharmacology and drug approving authorities is very serious and extremely responsible.
Impact of pharmacology on a society
It should be mentioned that pharmacology is one of the focal points of modern science and research activities. It seems that in the modern, high developed world all drugs and medicine are already invented and produced, but the up-to date realities and scientific achievements cause improvements of existing medicament’s and creation of new efficient pharmaceutical substances. At the same time more and more often the humanity faces the mutated strains of different viruses, various serious epidermis and fatal diseases. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Thus, there are a lot of thought questions and urgent problems that should be considered and solved by the best scientists in the field of pharmacology. Biomedical scientists make their efforts to examine body functioning and drug influence on a human to reduce side effects that can be caused by taking medicine and improve obtained results in disease treatment. Interdisciplinary links and advanced technologies give a helping hand in gaining the best and the most efficient outcome.
Papers concerning pharmacology science
It is always very important for every human to be healthy and in a good physical state all the time despite age or a social status. Texts about pharmacology are especially essential for the students who study at medical institutions and are about to become doctors or a health care workers in future. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
During studying and also in a future practicing pharmaceutics and biomedical students go through a big number of papers on pharmacology be it an essay about the history and development of this science in some course of time or a scientific work covering important investigations and discoveries in this branch of medicine. In case of facing some difficulties with such kind of papers, there is an option to buy them by means of ordering at the best paper writing services.
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects and modes of action of drugs. It studies how different chemicals affect biological systems, and incorporates knowledge and skills from a number of basic science disciplines including physiology, biochemistry, and cellular and molecular biology.
The study of pharmacology originated from the practices of ancient apothecaries, who would prescribe remedies for ailments and then observe the effects on their patients. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
As more medicines become available, pharmacology has become more important in determining the potential interactions caused by patients taking multiple prescribed, over-the-counter and even homeopathic medications. Whether these chemical agents are natural or synthetic, they can have physiological and behavioral effects on those that take them.
The study of pharmacology is important to medical support staff because it is essential in keeping a patient safe during treatment. At Living Arts College, pharmacology is a key focus of three of our programs: Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
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Because a number of prescriptions may be administered to a given patient, it is essential for medical assistants to have an understanding of potential interactions, proper dosage and how the medicine might affect the patient.
Medical Billing and Coding
Accuracy is the key to a medical billing and coding specialist’s function for any medical provider. Not only is it essential that the provider is paid on time, it’s important that the electronic records of each patient are as accurate as possible to ensure proper administration of medication.
Medical Administration Specialist
A medical administration specialist has somewhat of a unique position because they do a little bit of everything in a medical practice. Because their function can include responsibilities associated with assisting and coding as well as patient interaction, it’s essential for them to have a basic understanding of pharmacology. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Importance and or relevance of studying Pharmacology
Understand drugs and how they can affect living things
Know the right dosage of drugs and not just quantity
Identify and respond to drug interactions, reactions and side effects and treat accordingly
Know when to use drugs because some conditions do not need drug therapy
Understand the process of drug intake, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
Identify the properties of ideal drugs and otherwise
Know the application of pharmacology in nursing with regards to the 5 right of;
Use right drug
Give to right patient
Give right dose
Give by right route
Give at right time.
History of Pharmacology
Drugs have been used to treat diseases ever since the existence of man e.g. roots herbs, tree bark, animal parts, plant seeds etc. Sometimes people died after using certain plant and animal products. There was no rational use, choices were through observation and faith and some of the ingredients were absurd e.g. cowries chain for convulsion etc. The mode of action was not known, there was no therapeutic effect but most patients had psychological relief. With time and by trial and error, they began to differentiate between those that were poisonous and those not. Present day pharmacy dates back to the middle of the 19th Century through the isolation of specific active agents from their complex mixtures. It started with observing the effects of the drug on the whole animal or human patient. This progressed to the possible investigation of action on isolated organs e.g. ergometrine on the uterus. The researches then identified these basic attributes of pharmacology Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
The dose and effect relationship
The process involved in intake, absorption, distribution, transformation and excretion of drugs
The localization of the site of action
The mechanism of drug action
The relation ship between chemical structure and biological activity of substances.
Modern pharmacology began in the early 19th century and the 20th century brought further progress including development of serums, vaccines and many synthetic drugs. Pharmacy got recognized as a profession and legislation’s promoted to control experimentation, manufacture and sale of food and drugs. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dental Drugs
Pharmacology plays an important role in dentistry. The aim of dental pharmacology is to understand the scientific aspects of how drugs used in dentistry act within various body systems.
Pharmacology encompasses two aspects of drug metabolism – pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. While pharmacokinetics deals with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, pharmacodynamics deals with drug efficacy, safety, receptor occupancy (potency), and drug interactions. Knowledge of all these aspects with respect to a given drug is necessary in order to successfully treat a dental condition using the drug.
Following the oral or topical administration of a drug, its absorption requires that it be lipid soluble, as it can then diffuse through the epithelium and reach the capillaries. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Drug molecules travel in the bloodstream either in the free or unbound state, or bound to plasma proteins. Only the unbound drug is free and is distributed to the tissues. Further, the parent drug may be converted to a number of metabolites.
Either the parent drugs or their metabolites may be active/inactive and toxic/non-toxic. After metabolism, the course of elimination of the drug also varies depending on the route of administration and the physicochemical properties of the drug. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Drug action depends on the state of the receptors (active or inactive). Drugs interact with receptors in a variety of ways. Antagonists bind to receptors and do not activate either receptor state. Agonists bind as well as activate the receptors. Inverse agonists selectively stimulate the inactive receptor state by initiating the cellular response opposite to that generated by a natural agonist.
The efficacy and potency of drugs used in dentistry is determined by how well the drug binds with the receptors and triggers the desired response. The potency of these drugs is determined as the amount of drug required to produce a chosen intensity of effect. The drug doses are calculated for a given formulation (spray, gargle, rinse, tablet, ointment, or patch etc.) on the basis of all these factors. Additionally, it is equally important to understand the toxic effects associated with dental medicines, and any interactions with other drugs. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Medications Used in Dentistry
For instance, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, or nitrous oxide are administered to reduce the perception of pain associated with several dental conditions and procedures, and accompanying anxiety. Anesthetic medications bind to the sodium channels, blocking the conduction of nerve stimuli, and hence they are useful during procedures such as tooth extraction.
Local anesthetic ointments are also prescribed for application before meals, in order to numb the area of pain, so that the patient can eat peacefully. The onset and duration of action of these medications depend upon factors such as proximity to target site, concentration (dose), pH of the tissue, lipid/aqueous solubility, protein binding, and tissue redistribution of the drug. Their side effects may range from mild confusion and talkativeness to tonic-clonic seizures and severe depression. Nerve injury is also one of the serious but less common adverse effects of dental anesthetics. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications including corticosteroids are also used to relieve the pain. These are the most common categories of drugs used in dentistry, and are available in different dosage forms. Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) attach themselves to cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors – COX1 or COX2, and inhibit these enzymes. They possess antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities in addition to analgesic activities. COX2 inhibitors are particularly beneficial as they produce fewer or no gastrointestinal adverse effects compared with COX1 inhibitors. Other side effects of NSAIDs include renotoxicity, dyspepsia, and anaphylactic reactions. Opioids are another category of drugs used in dentistry as analgesics and sedatives. They directly affect the central nervous system. Addiction and withdrawal symptoms are potential problems associated with the long-term usage of opioids. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Another important category is antibiotics and antiseptics which are employed to treat the ailments such as plaque and gingivitis, and anti-fungal medicines which are used to treat oral thrush. These medicines target the gums and the dental roots, and are available as oral pills, mouth rinses and gargles. They are also utilized to treat breath odor. Bacteriostatic as well as bactericidal antibiotics include penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides etc. classes of drugs. The choice of antibiotics is driven by several factors including type of infection, age of the patient, compliance, medical history, concomitant medications, and bacterial resistance.
Why is pharmacology research important?
According to a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted in 2008, at that time almost 50% of Americans had used at least one prescription drug in the past month.1 A higher percentage of Americans, however, had used over-the-counter medications and dietary and herbal supplements at least once in that time frame. Pharmacology provides the studies to determine the safety and effectiveness of these medications.
Studies of Side Effects and Effectiveness in Different Populations
While the safety of medications is important for everyone, certain groups are at particular risk of adverse reactions. Researchers are studying the reasons behind drug reactions and looking for ways to personalize treatment according to people’s genetic make-up. Among the groups at greater risk for medication problems are the following: Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Seniors often take multiple medications that may interact with each other and lessen the effects of the drugs or, worse, cause serious harm.2 Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics investigate how these drugs interact with each other in the body to help health care providers choose the right medication and the right dosage for patients.3 For more information on medication use and seniors, visit the NIH National Institute on Aging’s Senior Health page on medication safety.
According to the CDC, one-half of pregnant women take up to four medications daily.4 Many medications may be given to pregnant women to manage their health conditions or to help the fetus develop. However, very few medications and supplements have been tested on pregnant women to determine the effectiveness and safety of these agents. A lack of testing can be harmful, however, as certain medications, for example, medications to treat acne5 and some dietary and herbal supplements6 can cause preterm labor or severe problems in fetal development or long-term development of the infant. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Infants and Children
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), most drugs prescribed for children have not been tested on that age group. Until the early 2000s, only about 20% of drugs approved by the FDA were labeled for use in children.7 Health care providers often had to prescribe medication for children without the benefit of research and government regulations to back up their dosages and prescriptions. Because of this, children were often given a smaller dose of a medication for adults. Since 2002, as a result of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, the NICHD has been identifying drugs and supporting studies that contribute to pediatric labeling and improved medication safety and effectiveness in children. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Social Pharmacology is a field of health science which generates knowledge about marketed drugs in actual use; it focuses on evaluation of the social consequences of an individual’s exposure to any marketed drug and factors related to its utilization.. The goal of this discipline is to gain knowledge still needed after a drug is marketed. The dossier of a new medicine following regulatory approval contains only the beginning of information needed to be gathered. The post marketing period represents the most extensive opportunity to study medications in their “social life cycle” The post approval environment is complex: strict drug development process controls are no longer in place and operational and management actions by industrial sponsors, health delivery agencies and regulators are unpredictable. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper We review the impact of social pharmacology on public health in its broadest scope. Social pharmacology is proposed as a strategic means to obtain essential data about marketed drugs by engaging the expertise of heterogeneous groups of health-related disciplines., By assessing the wide scope of potential interactions between vectors linked to the actual use of marketed drugs, population-based conclusions may be reached about risk-benefit factors, need for alert responses, proposed actions for decision-making, importance of negative drug effects, and promotion of proper and efficient use of drugs.
The importance of pharmacology in nursing
All around the world, registered nurses play an important role in administering medication to patients in a typical busy hospital environment. This duty requires a huge amount of effort on behalf of nurses to have a solid understanding of pharmacology and potentially fatal drug interactions. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
The nursing and midwifery board which regulate the practice of nurses in Australia states that enrolled nurses are only allowed to administer medication if their medication administration education is completed. Enrolled nurses who have not completed this education will have a notation on their register. It is expected these nurses will have the competence and confidence to administer the medication safely, no matter when the education was completed (1).
There are six rights of medication administration that nurses need to refer to before they give the patient their medicine (2);
Right Drug: double check the prescription, medication and expiry date on the medicine. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Right Patient: confirm the patient by a minimum of two identifiers, such as their name and date of birth. Also ensure they have an understanding of what the medication is and any possible side effects.
Right Dosage: confirm the dosage using a current drug reference. If unconfirmed, then calculate the dosage and double check with another nurse or doctor.
Right Time: confirm how often the medicine is to be administered and check with the patient when they had their last dosage.
Right Route: ensure the appropriateness of the route ordered and whether the patient can receive the medication from this route.
Right Documentation: document the administration of the medication as soon as it has been administered. Using professional clinical software can guarantee consistency.
Nurses also need to keep in mind what potential drug interactions can occur. A drug interaction is where two or multiple medicines react with one another causing unexpected side effects in the patient. There is multiple drug interaction checker software available online if the nurse administering is ever unsure of the after-effects. Nurses should also speak to a doctor or pharmacist if they feel a combination of medicines is incorrect. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Improving knowledge of medication
Nurses face numerous problems during the medication administration process, such as prescriptions coming across as equivocal, issues with computer technologies, medications being incompatible or unavailable, and multiple generic substitutions available which can cause confusion. Alongside this, nurses face having to administer medication in a busy environment full of disruptions and distractions, which is evidence that more support and training is required (3).
As a health care provider, nurses have a duty to stay updated about medical advancements and pharmaceutical drugs. Improving knowledge about medication requires action from nurses, such as (4);
Continue with education, with short courses that also provide contact hours and receive a Continuing Education Unit (CEU).
Study drug information which can be accessed online and outlines precautions, side effects, interactions, dosage instructions, potential diagnoses a nurse can make and teachings for patients and carers. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Access practice resources, such as practice guidelines and legal information, as well as text books which cover drug information, nursing skills in communication, and critical thinking.
Increase their CPD hours, study online about drug interactions and administering medication successfully.
Trends in medical care are marked by increased use and complexity of pharmacological therapies, increased acuity of hospital patients, and aging of the population. In this environment, knowledge of drugs, their side effects and interactions is increasingly important to nurses. Nurses not only administer medications, but they assess both therapeutic and adverse effects. Media attention to medical errors, specifically medication errors in nursing practice (Berens, 2000), has focused increased attention on pharmacology in nursing education. Knowledge of clinical pharmacology is an important educational outcome of nursing education. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of pharmacology modules on students’ acquisition of knowledge, and strengthen the ability of new graduates at UW-Eau Claire to provide competent, safe nursing care. In this evaluation research, two cohorts of graduating seniors in the nursing program took the NLN Pharmacology Achievement Test to evaluate their pharmacology knowledge. One group took the test prior to the pharmacology modules, the other group tested after. Qualitative data were also collected to describe the perceptions of students and faculty who used the modules. This research will provide data to strengthen the pharmacology content in an integrated curriculum in baccalaureate nursing education. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Pharmacology is focused on studying the effects of endogenous agents and xenobiotics on tissue and organ function. Analysis of the concentration/response relationship is the foundation for these assessments as it provides quantifiable information on compound efficacy, potency, and, ultimately, side-effect liability and therapeutic index. Historically, pharmacology has been viewed as a unifying, hierarchically integrated, and technologically agnostic discipline. Besides being important in the development of new medications, pharmacological research has led to a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and progression. By defining the effects of compounds in vitro and in vivo, pharmacology has provided the means to validate, optimize, and advance new chemical entities (NCEs) to human testing. With the advent of molecular biology-based assay systems and a technology-driven (high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, SNP mapping, systems biology) reductionistic focus, the integrated, hypothesis-driven pharmacological approach to drug discovery has been de-emphasized in recent years. This shift in research emphasis is now viewed by many as a major factor in the decline of new drug approvals and has led to various initiatives, the most notable being the Critical Path and Phase 0 clinical trial initiatives launched by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These programs underscore the growing need for individuals trained in integrative pharmacology and having a background in molecular pharmacology to drive the drug discovery process and to fostering the translational research that is now considered vital for more rapidly identifying novel, more effective, and safer medications. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
A great part of the population is under pharmacological treatment or takes herbal or other kinds of supplements. The influences between drugs and food/diet are of increasing interest for different reasons: – The increasing importance and detection of food-drug interactions; – The importance of an integrated dietetic-pharmacological treatment in diseases as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, etc; – The use of drugs and supplements in obesity; – The influence of diet in improving the nutritional status and reduction of drug adverse reactions in cancer and AIDS treatments. Therefore, dieticians need to have a broad knowledge of pharmacology, especially in the areas described before. In the dietician curriculum of the students of our school we have integrated applied pharmacology. We have worked in order to orient and adapt our pharmacology program to these specific subjects. This will provide the dietician with skills in order to obtain the optimum outcome in the treatment of their patients, working in a multidisciplinary team (nurses, physicians, pharmacists, physiotherapists, etc.).
Master the basic principles of pharmacology and safe medication administration with Clayton’s Basic Pharmacology for Nurses, 18th Edition. Known for its impeccably accurate and up-to-date drug content, this best-selling text consistently underscores medication safety as it guides you in applying pharmacology information to the nursing process. Introductory units acquaint you with the basic principles of pharmacology and medication administration, while subsequent body-system units prepare you to apply the nursing process to every major disorder. Clear guidelines cover safe drug handling, the types of drugs used for disorders or to affect body systems, injection and enteral administration, and patient education. From a respected author team, this full-color text also provides an excellent review for the pharmacology questions on the NCLEX® examination. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Medication safety is underscored through Medication Safety Alerts and Clinical Pitfall boxes, as well as Do-Not-Confuse and High Alert icons.
Unit on medication administration clearly and visually outlines assessment, techniques, procedures, and documentation for safe administration of percutaneous, enteral, and parenteral drugs.
Application of the nursing process offers an overview of general principles of nursing care for each disorder as well as specific nursing considerations for the drug treatment. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Lifespan Considerations boxes for children and for older adults draw attention to information that would be especially important when giving a specific drug to patients of those age groups.
Drug tables clearly outline generic and brand names, availability, and dosage ranges for key medications for each disorder.
Clinical Goldmine boxes focus on best practices in the clinical setting. Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper
Get Ready for the NCLEX® Examination! section at the end of each chapter covers key points from the chapter as well as review questions to help prepare for course assessments and the NCLEX Examination.
Video clips on medication administration procedures provide a visual reference for safe medication administration.
Key terms with phonetic pronunciations and text page references are listed at the beginning of each chapter.Advanced Pharmacology Assignment Paper