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America Eradication Of Smallpox Physically

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America Eradication Of Smallpox Physically

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America Eradication Of Smallpox Physically

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The questions below discuss the use of Tobacco in Poland and other parts of the developing countries like South Africa. It also discusses the worldwide eradication of Smallpox. It states the approach and interventions which were used to eliminate the infection. From the questions, we find the importance of implementation of policies that can help reduce the disease. The first part which is part A discusses the issues that deal with the eradication of Smallpox. The second part of the Question which is part B discusses the problems associated with the consumption and use of Tobacco in Poland and other parts of the World.
Q1. Define eradication, control and elimination
Eradication refers to the permanent reduction of new infections globally to zero through various measures with no intervention. Elimination is the process of reducing the transmission of the diseases to nil in a specified location or area, but not global, by use of various interventions needed to stop transmission reestablishment. Control is the process of reducing the occurrence of new infections, the current number of individuals affected, as well as the number of individuals who die or become sick from the disease in local settings. Control can be achieved by use of efforts like the use of medications, vaccines and the interventions of public health (Boylston 2014).
Q2. The features of smallpox that made it an suitable candidate for eradication
Smallpox was appropriate for eradication because there was no existence of intervening vectors, for example, water, air, and Animals. This showed that the infection could not be eliminated quietly with inadequate knowledge of its presence; it merely relied on individuals to spread (Snyder 2016). The diagnosis process was simple because of its symptoms, and people who undergone immunization remained guaranteed for life (O’Leary 2016). As a result of how the spread of smallpox was dangerous, individuals who are infected were expected not to spread the disease because most of them remained bed-ridden. In the event of outbreaks, the infection was tractable easily and gave the people who are fighting the adequate infection time to separate those who are infected as well as solving the issues that are associated with the disease (Weiss and Esparza 2015).
Q3. Describe global efforts to eradicate smallpox from 1959-1965
The effort made was that in 1958, the Soviet Union health minister proposed a campaign with the intention of eradicating the disease globally; the campaign was based on compulsory revaccination and vaccination. After one year, world health organization report the suggestion made on the proposal that eradication was to be achieved by revaccinating or vaccinating. In 1965, the World Health Organization established a unit for the Smallpox Eradication. The campaign’s donors such as the United States provided financial and technical support for the eradication of the disease (Assis et al. 2016).
Q4. What happened 1965 to 1967 which eventually allowed smallpox to be eradicated?
In 1965, the World Health Organization and the US government which are the largest contributor to the end to the disease promised more material and technical support to the campaign against Smallpox. The United States decision to offer more support was a significant factor for the development of the program. The setting of a new understanding of the transmission of the disease by  Dr Candau contributed to the eradication of the Smallpox. In 1966, the WHA agreed to support the objective relating to the intensification of the infection eradication programme. In 1966, there was a mass campaign of vaccination started following the rapid outbreak of the disease. In 1967 mark the launching of the program for the intensification of Smallpox eradication (Imperato 2017).
Q5.  The efforts made in 1967 to 1977 which resulted in the last report of smallpox 1977?
The effort made was that in 1967, the eradication effort of eliminating the infection was intensified by the World Health Organization. The year of 1971 was accompanied with the introduction of the vaccine provision of bifurcated needle and adequate freeze-dried vaccine. The last outbreak of the disease in major European was in the year 1972. In September 1973, strong campaigns started in the remaining five endemic countries such as Pakistan and Bangladesh. By the end of the year 1975, an intensive containment, vaccination, and surveillance program were carried out in few nations that still have the infection (Horn of Africa). The last occurring case of the Smallpox diagnosis happened in Ali Maow Maalin, on 26/10/1977.
Q6. Summarisation of the factors that led to the success of the smallpox eradication program.
The factors that favoured the eradication of smallpox include the following: (1) most of the transmission occurred through droplets spread via face to face contact, thereby making the containment of the outbreak to be comparatively easy. (2) The disease has no state of the carrier, and it also confers permanent immunity. (3) The features of Smallpox enable the surveillance and diagnosis of the infection to be easy. Then lastly the advantageous properties of the Smallpox vaccine favoured the eradication process. The properties include it was inexpensive and heat-stable; it offered protection with only one inoculation, and it can be administered anytime (Orenstein 2017).
Q7. lessons learned from eradication of smallpox
Lessons learned are that superior technology for the vaccination must be established, and the practical part of the eradication must be performed in the field before the approving the eradication process. Lack of adequate preparation causes costly failure as well as loss of trustworthiness for the professionals of the Public health who are performing the initiatives. The eradication of smallpox indicated that use of vaccines could help in the achievement of the ultimate goal: a complete end of a dangerous affliction of humankind. The eradication of the disease is a gift for all future generation. The elimination of smallpox requires the cooperation, leadership, national commitment, appropriate technology and epidemiologic information.
Can Polio be eradicated? Explain your answer
Yes, the eradication of polio is possible. Even though the eradication of Polio comes with a lot of challenge because of a single paralysis of the disease, there are a total of more than two hundred children being affected. To eradicate the disease, the following strategies should be taken into consideration: Interventions against those remaining endemic areas that are affected by the disease, worldwide campaigns against polio, and immunization of children OPV can help eradicate the occurrence of polio. The initiative team for the Global Polio Eradication can help eradicate the existence of the disease by developing the appropriate immunization policy.
1 The reasons for the high consumption levels of tobacco in Poland before the year 1990
The reason for the high consumption of tobacco in Poland is because of the social and political climate of the country. Before 1990, the government failed to fully disclose to the people the negative effect of smoking Tobacco. This made most of the Polish smokers to be less informed on the risk which is associated with smoking as compared to their European neighbors (Kaleta, Usidame,  Szosland-Fa?tyn and Makowiec-D?browska 2014). Additionally, The laws which control the use of Tobacco were not enforced, and the Government rejects the Tobacco- control legislation which was enacted in 1980 because the government saw it as a threat to the state revenue (Jha and Peto 2014).
2 Efforts in Poland to control the use of tobacco.
The establishment of the scientific evidence of the in-country by Poland’s scientific community helped in illustrating the negative effect of smoking Tobacco on Health. Research which was conducted revealed the effect of smoking Tobacco on health, emphasizing, In particular, the relationship between the outbreak of Cancer and Smoking of Tobacco (Zatonksi, Asma and Gupta 2015). The existence of different evidence that explained the negative effect of smoking Tobacco. The Civil society started the call for control measures on the Tobacco use in Poland. The establishment of health promotion foundation helped in the provision of education against the use of Tobacco. The free media also helped in the control of Tobacco as it enables easier reporting of scientific work. Lastly, democracy was also used as a tool for fighting against smoking (Townsend 2015).
3 How the scientists and advocates in South Africa and Poland take advantage of a political transition to advance.

   When communism fell, the civil society in Poland gained a stronger voice.
   Poland’s scientists brought came up with some fact about Tobacco as well as the effects of it.
   They used free media to increase education and raise awareness.
   Democracy offered a window for the development of a powerful tool to help in preventing smoking: the control legislation of Tobacco.

South Africa:

Mandela: Tough anti-smoking stance: fought for a ‘world free of Tobacco.’
Mandela enables the change in use of Tobacco.
Legislation was used.

4 The factors that I would use in tracking the effect of Tobacco include the following:
(1) Tobacco industry- the accessible of the data of the company can enable an individual to track the effect of Tobacco. The intervention will aim at reducing the actual sales of the product. (2) Individual factors- a change of individual behavior can also help in tracking the effect of the intervention. (3) Population factors- characteristics of a community or State can influence the control efforts of Tobacco. Resistance to a particular control intervention can be seen in communities that are political conservative (Jha et al. 2015).  
3 The factors that account for the increasing smoking problem include:

Knowledge deficiency-lack of adequate knowledge on the negative effect of smoking to human can enable more people to continue using the product.
Low income
Lack of enough communication capabilities
In some situation the cost is less as compared to food

The economic consequences include:  

Treatment costs are greater than the Tobacco profits.

Smallpox is a contagious disease which is caused by the Virus. The transmission of the infection is through close contact with other people who are infected. The global eradication of infection requires the establishment of a unit for eradication, and it also needs financial and technical support from other largest donors. The paper also highlights the importance of leadership, cooperation, national commitment and appropriate policies which should be taken into consideration. The consumption of Tobacco can cause death to very many people. Therefore, the government should come up with essential strategies that can help reduce smoking this is because of the negative effect which is associated with the consumption of the Tobacco to lower the death rate linked to the consumption of Tobacco.
Assis, F., Trindade, G., Drumond, B., Frace, M., Sammons, S., Emerson, G., Li, Y., Carroll, D., Batra, D., Abrahão, J. and Kroon, E., 2016. Genome sequence of Vaccinia virus strain Lister-Butantan, a Lister vaccine variant used during a smallpox eradication campaign in Brazil. Genome announcements, 4(3), pp.00536-16.
Boylston, A., 2014. John Haygarth’s 18th-century ‘rules of prevention’for eradicating smallpox. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 107(12), pp.494-499.
Imperato, P.J., 2017. Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era.
Jha, P. and Peto, R., 2014. Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(1), pp.60-68.
Jha, P., MacLennan, M., Chaloupka, F.J., Yurekli, A., Ramasundarahettige, C., Palipudi, K., Zatonksi, W., Asma, S. and Gupta, P.C., 2015. Global hazards of tobacco and the benefits of smoking cessation and tobacco taxes. DISEASE CONTROL PRIORITIES• THIRD EDITION, p.175.
Kaleta, D., Usidame, B., Szosland-Fa?tyn, A. and Makowiec-D?browska, T., 2014. Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010). BMC Public Health, 14(1), p.127.
Kostova, D., Chaloupka, F.J. and Shang, C., 2015. A duration analysis of the role of cigarette prices on smoking initiation and cessation in developing countries. The European Journal of Health Economics, 16(3), pp.279-288.
O’Leary, N.P.M., 2016. The End of a Global Pox: America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era. Journal of American History, 103(2), pp.538-538.
Orenstein, W.A., 2017. DA Henderson—physically gone but his impact will live on forever. Annals of epidemiology, 27(3), pp.155-156.
Snyder, A., 2016. Donald A Henderson. The Lancet, 388(10049), p.1050.
Townsend, J., 2015. Curbing tobacco smoking. Promoting Health, Preventing, p.53.
Weiss, R.A. and Esparza, J., 2015. The prevention and eradication of smallpox: a commentary on Sloane (1755)’An account of inoculation’. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1666), p.20140378.
World Health Organization, 2015. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2015: raising taxes on tobacco. World Health Organization.

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