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Basic Psychological Needs In Motivation

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Basic Psychological Needs In Motivation

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Discuss About The Basic Psychological Needs In Motivation Development And Wellness.

 
Answer:
Introduction

School leadership has been an area of concern for an extended period of time, especially in Saudi Arabia. This is because school principals usually have a negative impact on the well-being of teachers, therefore, making the teachers demotivated and dissatisfied with a factor which is positively correlated with the general performance of the institutions (Taylor et al., 2014). To address these problem Self Determination Theory (SDT) can be applied which focuses on the human motivation and personality about other aspects such as human psychological needs. The theory evaluates the reasons which make people formulate certain decisions and choices for themselves without being influenced by external factors. About the three constructs outlined in SDT namely competence, autonomy and relatedness this paper aims to describe the principal’s insignificance towards them, hence the negative association with teacher’s motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2017). This is because as it is specified in SDT, the three constructs are fundamental psychological needs for optimal motivation.
Competence is concerned with the urge to control the outcome of various aspects together with managing one’s experiences (Gagne, 2014). Provision of wonderful positive feedback potentially increases people intrinsic motivation. There exists a direct relationship between positive feedback and level of competence such that positive feedback leads to a high competency and vice versa (Ryan & Deci, 2014). However positive feedback increases intrinsic motivation it also decreases the extrinsic motivation. The school principals usually provide negative feedback a factor which reduces the teacher’s competence level. The behavior has been leading to the dissatisfaction of teachers, therefore, interfering with the execution of their professional duties. This generally affects the entire school performance due to poor leadership.
 
Autonomy involves the ability to see the connection between one’s actions and those of others in the environment. Extrinsic rewards for intrinsically motivated behavior potentially undermines the intrinsic motivation (Gagne, 2014). This is directly associated to decrease autonomy. In leadership, it is recommended that inherent behavior is rewarded intrinsically since it gives it equips individuals with the knowledge and ideas of having more control of their life. Autonomy, as outlined in the self-determination theory, is a crucial factor affecting the performance of Saudi Arabian learning institutions. This is because the school leadership does not practice autonomy. Therefore, the teachers are not free as they attend to their professional duties. The school principals should not be over authoritative, but instead, they should build a secure connection with the teachers. This will motivate them as they execute their tasks as the working environment will be friendly. Furthermore, all stakeholders are driven towards achieving a common goal.
The self-determination theory portrays relatedness as the urge for the connection with the environment and under individuals (Gagne, 2014). For peaceful coexistence amongst people, relatedness is mandatory. It promotes teamwork as people live happily and work towards achieving the common specified goal. Relatedness is commonly referred to as “psychological connection” as psychology plays a significant role in connecting people (Ryan & Deci, 2014). The theory outlines human beings to be social animals, therefore, making communication mandatory with others. The difficulty facing Saudi Arabian schools is a lack of leadership which embraces relatedness. This has dramatically decreased motivation amongst teachers, therefore, behaving reluctantly in executing their tasks. The school principals have facilitated the creation of a working environment where the psychological connection is not embraced. As result teamwork has been killed which is fundamental in achieving the anticipated goals.
From the examination of the Self Determination Theory (SDT) principal’s insignificance towards competence, autonomy and relatedness are displayed which leads to a negative association with the teacher’s motivation. This indicates that there is no good working relationship between the school principals and teachers in Saudi Arabia. As a result, the leadership has been a significant challenge leading to poor performance of the schools. The principals are not keen on the extrinsic and intrinsic factors which stimulate and motivate people within and outside the organization (Ryan & Deci, 2017). The feelings and opinions of the teachers have not been considered in the process of formulating decisions therefore negatively affecting their motivation. The teachers require their psychological needs valued and acknowledged so that they can remain motivated in executing their duties. Ongoing social nutrients and support are also demanded amongst the teachers so that they can stay motivated and inspired.  To uplift the motivation of the teachers, the school principals should ensure that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors are addressed. This will include elements like rewards, annual numbers, and evaluations as well as considering one’s interest and opinions in the process of decision making. This will motivate the teachers, therefore, developing creativity, passion, and determination in the workplace (Taylor et al., 2014). The general performance of the schools will significantly increase.
 
References
Gagné, M. (Ed.). (2014). The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory. Oxford Library of Psychology.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. (2014). Self-determination theory. In Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 5755-5760). Springer Netherlands.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Publications.
Taylor, G., Jungert, T., Mageau, G. A., Schattke, K., Dedic, H., Rosenfield, S., & Koestner, R. (2014). A self-determination theory approach to predicting school achievement over time: The unique role of intrinsic motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(4), 342-358.

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