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Communication in Health Essay Paper

Communication in Health Essay Paper

Introduction to communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s setting (SHC 21) Assessment Criteria Outcome 1 – Understand why communication is important in the work setting 1. Identify different reasons why people communicate • People communicate so job the job can be done properly, by communicating this can also improve relationship and promote team work. At work I speak to my colleagues during work so the job can be done easily and efficiently. I think that speaking during working hours can improve working relationship and promote team work. Communication in Health Essay Paper

I also speak to the clients during work hours so I will know if they need any help or assistance. By speaking to them I will know what food they would like to eat, what activities they want to do or if they want a male or female carer to help them during personal care. 2. Explain how effective communication affects all aspects of own work • By speaking to colleagues in work, this will help improve my personal skills in communication and team work. This will lead to happy and productive working environment and can prevent conflict of opinions. Communication in Health Essay Paper


I speak to my colleagues when helping an individual who needs two care staff so the job can be done efficiently and properly. I should also speak to clients during personal care to prevent them from being anxious and worried. I should tell them that they are safe and that there is nothing to worry about. 3. Explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them • It is important that I pay attention to the client’s reactions when I speak to them because sometimes they may not understand what I am saying to them.

Some clients have lost the ability to understand simple sentences and some requires time to process the words in their brain. I should talk clearly, slowly and calmly, this would make them feel comfortable and feel that they are being respected and treated properly. I should observe their reactions because sometimes if you say something to them, they might take it the wrong way and feel offended, if this happens, I should clarify and be more understanding to make sure that they are not angry or upset. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Outcome 2 – Be able to meet the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals 1. Find out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences • When I speak to clients, I should speak slowly and calmly so they will have the time to process the sentences that I have said. Before speaking to a new client, I should check their personal folder first and read their past medical history, by doing so I will know if they have speech problems or use sign language to communicate.

When speaking to a client, I should be careful what words to say and refrain from saying my opinions because this might offend them as every individual have their own personal beliefs and values which depend on their culture, socio-economic status, sexual preference and religion. Some clients may also use a hearing aid, so I should speak to them calmly so they wouldn’t think that they are being shouted at. 2. Demonstrate communication methods that meet an individual’s communication needs, wishes and preferences When speaking to clients I should give them eye contact so they will feel that they are being listened to and I should pay my attention to them. By doing this, this could help promote working relationship and enable the clients to talk to me easily without worrying. I should also use physical gestures when speaking to them just in case that they don’t understand what I am trying to tell them as some clients have problems understanding basic sentences and words, especially clients with Alzheimer and Dementia. I should also maintain a calm body language around the clients so they wouldn’t feel scared or intimidated. Communication in Health Essay Paper

I should also be smiling when speaking to them so they will feel that they are being listened to, understood and valued. 3. Show and how to seek advice about communication • Before speaking to a new client, I should check their personal profile and past medical problems, this will give me an insight if they have speech problems. I should ask senior carers or other senior members to staff for advice about communication and how to deal with clients who has speech problems and the best possible way to communicate with them without intruding an individual’s personal space and beliefs.

I could also speak to the head of training and ask if there are available courses which will help me develop my communication skills. Outcome 3 – Be able to reduce barriers to communication 1. Identify barriers to communication • Some clients may speak a different language or use sign language, this will be difficult for me to deal with because they might find it offensive if I ask them to speak in English or write down what they are trying to tell me. • When passing on information, I should listen carefully to prevent misunderstandings and conflict of opinions Conflict of opinions can cause emotional difficulties. This could make working with others awkward and may lead to mistakes. • I should speak to my colleagues and the clients properly to make sure that no conflicts or misunderstanding occurs. I should also make sure that I reflect a happy facial expression when speaking to colleagues and clients. 2. Demonstrate how to reduce barriers to communication in different ways • Communication is an important part of the care industry. When speaking to colleagues and clients alike, I should use a calm tone of voice, a happy facial expression and a relaxed body language. Communication in Health Essay Paper

By doing so this could improve communication in work and promote efficient and effective teamwork. I should speak to clients like this as it could also promote working relationship and will make clients speak to me more often without feeling intimidated. I should also speak clearly to my colleagues during working hours so mistakes and accidents can be prevented. I should also listen carefully and tentatively so the person speaking to me wouldn’t feel that they are being ignored or cause misunderstandings. 3. Demonstrate ways to check that communication has been understood When a client is speaking to me, I should listen carefully and if I am in doubt or didn’t understand what they said, I should ask them again to repeat it to prevent misunderstanding. I should also do the same when a colleague is speaking to me, as this will improve communication at work; promote team work which will make the job easier. I should listen to carefully when information is being given to prevent mistakes or accidents from happening as this could lead to other problems such as conflict of opinions and emotional feelings. . Identify sources of information and support or services to enable more effective communication • I should ask the head of training for information regarding speech and language services. I should attend training if one if provided to improve my communication skill. This should make me deal with work problems and deal with complicated situations easily such as misunderstanding with colleagues or not understanding what is being said to me by the clients. Communication in Health Essay Paper

I should also refer to the client’s personal profile and check if they need to speak to an advocate so I could understand their personal needs and communicate with them with ease. Outcome 4 – Be able to apply principles and practices relating to confidentiality at work 1. Explain the term ‘confidentiality’ • Confidentiality means not sharing or giving information to someone outside work. When a visitor asks me about a client’s well being, I should not say anything to them as a client’s personal information is private.

I should direct the visitors to a senior member of staff and that they could deal with them. I should not talk about a client’s personal life outside of work as this is breaking the codes of work and violating the company’s working rules. Personal information should be kept in a folder and away from public access to prevent information from being spread. 2. Demonstrate confidentiality in day to day communication, in line with agreed ways of working • I should only talk about a client with a work colleague during working hours. Communication in Health Essay Paper

I shouldn’t speak to a visitor about a client if they don’t know anything about the individual as this will breach their privacy and rights. I should never talk about clients outside of work as some people might hear about it and this could cause the information from being spread. 3. Describe situations where information normally considered to be confidential might need to be passed on. • If a client is in the hospital and the nurses will need information about their past medical problems and what medication they are on, this means that confidentiality can be breached.

By doing this, this could save the individual’s life or prolong them because they will be treated easily and quickly if important information is given. 4. Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality • I should speak to senior carers or other members of staff if I need help and advice about confidentiality. By doing so, this could prevent information from being spread and keeping the individual’s privacy and dignity. I should also refer to the company rules on how to handle confidentiality so if a visitor or a relative ask me about a certain client, I will know how to deal with them without causing any misunderstanding. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Communication is a process that is fundamentally concerned with the transmittal and credence of messages which may either alteration people ‘s perceptual experience or non ( Tones and Green, 2005 ) . This bringing of information and advocate is cardinal to schemes in a well being programme ( Naidoo and Wills, 2009, p.185 ) . It involves three chief constituent which are the communicator circulating the information, the message that is been delivered to the audience and the receiver absorbing the message ( Tones and Green, 2005 ) . However the process of communicating and the consequence of its handiness, nowadayss impulsive responses that affect the attitudes and sentiments of many people.

Therefore, communicating scheme means the usage of conventional media support like the journalists, telecasting, wireless, interviews, runs, flyers, postings, voluntary intelligence study, compensated advertizement, preparation, tutoring, societal selling schemes and the usage of recent signifiers of media particularly the computing machine links to go through across of import information to the public so as to heighten a alteration in people ‘s manner of life ( Naidoo and Wills, 2009, p.185 ) . The communicating scheme for this assignment will concentrate on the issue of fleshiness among college pupils in Newtownabbey country of Northern Ireland, how to raise consciousness about its hazard, and how to battle it through informed cognition by cut downing the mayhem it can do subsequently in life to immature grownups if proper schemes are non put in topographic point. Communication in Health Essay Paper


In the western universe most particularly in the UK and the USA an eruption of diet associated complaint is impacting the general populace, which had led to an exceeding addition in the happening of fleshiness and its related complaint which include high blood force per unit area, diabetes, Cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) and some sort of malignant neoplastic disease that have led to imperative intercession for its obliteration ( Department of Health, Chief Medical Officer, 2003 ) . It was besides estimated by the ( World Health Organisation [ WHO ] , 2002 ) that approximately 58 % of type 2 diabetes, 21 % of CVD and 42 % of some sort of malignant neoplastic diseases are ascribed to surplus adiposeness in the organic structure. This information was supported by a study written by the National Audit Office ( 2001 ) saying that over 9000 premature mortality is recorded each twelvemonth in England due to fleshiness related disease, which causes a decrease in life expectancy by about 9 old ages. Communication in Health Essay Paper

The effects of fleshiness can hold a serious impact on people ‘s wellness and wellbeing particularly adolescents by impacting them socially, psychologically and physically. This impact of fleshiness was summarised by ( DHSSPS, 2002 ; Fit-future, 2006 ) as follows:

Socially doing a decrease of life anticipation by approximately nine old ages.

Physically doing a major addition in the hazard of Northern Ireland taking destructive complaint like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and malignant neoplastic disease.

Psychologically doing a major impact on adolescents ‘ self-esteem and emotional well being.

Physically predisposing fleshy kids to going corpulent grownups in future.

In Northern Ireland it was reported that fleshiness was said to be doing 450 deceases every twelvemonth which is equal to more than 4000 old ages of misplaced life ( DHSSPS, 2002 ) . Besides it was related that this pandemic do causes a 260 000 wasted productive old ages, which is tantamount to around ?500 million economic lost ( Fit-future, 2006 ) . Communication in Health Essay Paper


Fleshiness in kids has drastically increased in England from 11 % in 1995 to 19 % in 2004 among male childs of ages between 2-15 old ages old while the same tendency besides affected misss of the same age scope by a extremist addition from 12 % in 1995 to 18 % in 2004 ( Department of wellness [ DH ] , 2005 ) . Fit-future ( 2006 ) besides reported that the degree of fleshiness in kids in Northern Ireland is increasing every twelvemonth ensuing in approximately 20 % of male childs and 25 % of misss being fleshy or corpulent in primary one. This has resulted into more than a one-fourth increase in corpulence and fleshiness in the last 10 old ages among 12 and 15 old ages old adolescents shacking in Northern Ireland ( Watkins and Murray, 2005 ) .

This is why this communicating scheme intercession needs to be put in topographic point to do certain that immature citizen are to the full cognizant of the effects of fleshiness and its predisposing factor that can do menace to life. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Management and Theoretical Opinions

Peoples ‘s manner of life in relation to their wellness has been regarded as the beginning of several current diseases, which can be controlled by researching many theoretical accounts in wellness that recognizes the grounds for behavioral transmutation ( Naidoo and Wills, 2009 ) . Kobetz et Al. ( 2005 ) claimed that a good constructed and strategic extension of a theory based wellness communicating and placing the relevancy of the theory is a major input to accomplishing a successful communicating.

In order to hold a valuable communicating scheme that is good managed to battle the pandemic of fleshiness in childhood, the wellness booster has sourced the aid of a theoretical account called the Health Belief Model ( HBM ) ( Becker, 1974 ) . This is the most favorable of all the wellness theoretical accounts. Janz and Becker ( 1984 ) declared that this theoretical account was antecedently developed to imagine precautional wellness behaviors and its reaction to vomit patients ‘ intervention. It looks at how beliefs impact on behavior ( Abraham and Sheeran, 2005 ) . That is what a individual put into pattern depends on how defenseless they recognize themselves to be to the complaint – their thought about susceptibleness to the complaint ( fleshiness ) and its predisposing factor, the awaited badness of that incidence, the advantage of implementing self-defense, and the barrier to its execution. Where such wellness beliefs are understood from wellness instruction or perceived symptoms, it can assist in exciting healthy behavioral alteration. Bandura ( 1986 ) supported this position by accepting that cognition is needed to turn around people ‘s ways and action and is really of import in act uponing dietetic behavior. This is why a college is chosen to propagate and increase the consciousness of obesity pandemic among kids and suggest a solution that could be of aid to adolescents. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Prochaska and Diclemente ( 1986 ) besides brought the thought of another theoretical account that suggests that persons change their actions at some specific phases in life instead than doing a individual revolution. This theoretical account identifies that an single move through several ladder to achieve a healthy life merely if they are cognizant of the necessity to do corrections.

Authorization as related by ( Tones and Tilford, 2001 ) was pointed out to be the major end of wellness message extension, because it help to develop single liberty and guarantee they derive more power over their day-to-day lives. It focuses on a ” bottom-up ” programme development technique ( Laverack, 2005 ) , because it tends to measure peoples necessities before a scheme that will accommodate their status is planned. An sceptered and independent person who recognizes that being corpulent can consequences into a batch of life endangering diseases subsequently in life, which could do life suffering would be given to be cautious about the sort of life style they adopt. This empowerment attack is viewed from the micro and macro positions, which are the self-empowerment and the community development attack. The former shows the extent at which persons have governments over their relationship with the society ( Berry, 2007 ) . Therefore, an attack that empowers, inform and enhance alteration in behavior is required for an effectual wellness run.

In be aftering a wellness communicating programme whose overall end is to increase the consciousness of fleshiness, it is really important that the constitution work jointly together and organize themselves in the same way. This combined work is evaluated by utilizing the thought of the SWOT analysis which considers the inside and the exterior constituent of an environment as a really of import portion of the premeditated planning procedure ( Jackson et al. , 2003 ) . This assesses the ” strengths, failings, chances and menaces ” involved in be aftering the scheme. The appraisal is as follows: Communication in Health Essay Paper

Strength: The aid of some of the staff of the establishment will be requested for volunteering function to cut down the fundss of the program, and to do pupil hold a sense of belonging, since some of their coachs will be involved in impacting the messages.

Failings: Problems might originate from promoting nutrient sellers to alter the sort of nutrient they prepare for pupil, because they might be loath in doing alterations due to an anticipated decrease in their gross revenues and net income.

A struggle job might besides originate when seeking to make partnership among the section that would be involved in the scheme.

Support of the scheme might besides make a hinderance.

Opportunities: This scheme might assist to cut down pupils thought of taking to eat nutrient that are life threatening.

Menaces: This can take to decrease of pupil ‘s buying power on nutrients that are high in cholesterin, which could impact the stores that need to do net income.

All effectual administration modus operandi relies on the exultant direction of the chance, challenges and the hazards presented by the exterior atmosphere. A good recognized technique for analyzing the general environment is the PEST analysis.i.e. the Political, Economic, Socio-cultural and Technological influences ( Harvard Business School Press, 2006 ) . The cardinal issues refering to the current scheme are explained below: Communication in Health Essay Paper

Political: The bing state policies will be sourced to guarantee the effectivity of the new scheme by look intoing whether there are lasting political issues on fleshiness, and to exert how this new intercession will add more to the cognition of the populace.

Economic: An approximative thought of the pupil fundss will be identified, to measure if they will be able to afford the healthy nutrient, so as to guarantee conformity.

Socio-cultural: Student belief about the sort of nutrient they eat, environmental and peer group influence on the pick of nutrient they purchase will be examined.

Technological: Attempt to supply weighing machines for Body Mass Index ( BMI ) cheque on campus and in the hall of abode and besides proviso of healthy nutrient dealing machines will be made available.

In an organisational system it is of extreme significance that the director and the leaders in charge of the success of an organisation are good equipped with the traditions and personality of the people they work with.i.e. their single differences. An effectual leader and director must guarantee that they play a dynamic function, designate people and resources to the right avenue, and advance success all the clip ( Young and Dulewicz, 2009 ) . A director responsibility was summarized by ( Stewart, 1999 ) as person that makes a determination on how an constitution should be run by puting good illustrations in pattern, cultivating the act of actuating the staff, promoting good interpersonal interaction and communicating, every bit good as guaranting betterment of staff accomplishments and knowledge through different betterment programme. There are different direction theories that can be used in be aftering this scheme, but the eventuality theory is the best one out of them. It was claimed by ( Vecchio, 2000 ) that the technique and systems of running an organisation bulge down to the inducement given to the staff and the dedication of the staff to the company. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Leadership was besides described by ( Mullins, 2002 ) as the value that can be introduced into a profession which is non designated to a peculiar individual but comes as an unprompted reaction.

In accomplishing an effectual direction technique, keeping a struggle free squad work must be portion of the responsibility of a leader every bit good as a good director. A direction accomplishment must be put in topographic point that will guarantee admiting the thoughts of all squad members to avoid struggle, because a winning squad must hold an evident end, good interpersonal relationship, first-class communicating accomplishments and must be up to the undertaking. This thought was supported by Hargie and Dickson ( 2004 ) when they highlighted the four accomplishments that must be exercised to eschew struggle.

To properly trade with a squad struggle, a director must follow the ability to negociate and deal, which is really of import in undertaking a squad job. This aid to make a resonance among the squad members which will guarantee making a via media by happening solution to the struggle. Martin and Rogers ( 2004 ) besides suggested that for a director to be in full control of his squad members, he must be unagitated, logical in his ideas and be able to command his emotions. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Communication Scheme

The chosen locale for the proposed communicating scheme is the Northern Regional College ( NRC ) in Newtownabbey country of Northern Ireland, since early old ages of kids and adolescents has been described as a period when they tend to get long term behaviors and attitudes ( Naidoo and Wills,2009, p.206 ) .The NRC is an educational and learning establishment where accomplishments can be impacted in a secure and compassionate environment, which made it a perfect topographic point for a healthy location ( Xiangyang et al. , 2003 ) . In position of the fact that teenage old ages are characterized by equal group influence, the school milieus provides a opportunity to pass on with adolescent and provides learning chances and a secure environment to execute latest accomplishments ( Naidoo and Wills, 2009, P.207 ) . This is because they focus on educating and preparation, which is a undertaking in originating and making originality in pupil ( Dooris and Thompson, 2001 ) . Sakamaki et Al. ( 2005 ) concluded in their survey that higher establishment is a last consequence for the airing of nutrition messages to legion pupils, which can make a great impact in the society.

This scheme will concentrate on immature kids of both sexes in a college scene of age scope 14-16 old ages old through the acceptance of a classroom-based method of presenting talk that will edify the pupils on the proper dietetic wont and the sort of healthy nutrient they can put their custodies on. This educational intercession will consist of approximately five talks that will last about 40minutes each, and will be spread over one hebdomad. Different stuffs like ocular AIDSs, slides and transparence that have been pre-tested in the pilot survey will be made usage of by the voluntaries and the wellness booster involved in the programme presentation to propagate the messages. The ocular assistance will incorporate of import information on diet and wellness, many nutrient lack upsets, and importance of physical activity and the assorted sorts that will accommodate the pupil twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life. Interpersonal interactions, little group treatment, and channels that comprises of the usage of the slides to convey healthy feeding messages, that is tips that will help them to eat good will besides be show cased to augment the material of the message being delivered. A follow up booklet incorporating all the messages delivered will be provided for the college pupils every month to upgrade the information they have heard during the intercession. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Overall Goal

The overall purpose of this communicating scheme is to educate and increase the degree of consciousness among college pupils about the hazard of fleshiness.


It was pointed out by ( Labonte, 1998 ) that virtually all the usual wellness publicity ends are focused on bar of infection, decreasing human death, morbidity, and attitudinal alterations. Therefore, the intent of this proposed scheme will center on edifying pupil by making watchfulness, which will ensue in healthy manner of life from the scrash by catching them in their juvenile old ages. The aim is accommodating the term ( SMART ) . Which means the purpose must be ” Specific for the programme, Measurable, Achievable in its entirety, and Realistic to the mark group every bit good as Time witting ” ( Mullins, 2002 ) . The acquisition aims are stated below

To make consciousness about the sort of healthy nutrient that can advance healthy life among adolescents.

To guarantee adolescents circulate the message received from school to other members of the households so as to guarantee good nutritionary cognition and pattern is propagated outside the school environment.

To edify pupils about the sort of life style they need to transfuse to avoid the hazard of holding the complaint.

To set up whether pupil have a anterior cognition of the complaint and its effects.

To forestall fleshiness and overweight by advancing attitudes, cognition and communicating accomplishments that makes healthy eating patterns realisable. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Time Frame

The awaited clip for the programme should be within a three months period. Which means the strategic planning should get down approximately in May 2010 and executing of the program should get down in June and terminal in July 2010.

During this period the pilot survey that is incorporated into the program will be undertaken.This will be done to supply chance to measure and supervise the effectivity of the scheme, so as to do amendment where necessary, before the existent programme is implemented.

Execution of the Strategy

To accomplish a success in transporting out this scheme an ethical issue must be put into consideration since the mark group are among the vulnerable groups of the society. This position was declared by ( Beauchamp and Childress, 2001 ) where they highlighted the four celebrated ethical rules that need to be put in topographic point when organizing any wellness publicity run. This include esteeming peoples autonomy and confidentiality, being beneficence, doing no devastation to people, and doing good justness as at when necessary. Sing all this ethics the message to be delivered must be free of ambiguities, menace free, and must besides be from an reliable beginning to avoid misinformation. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Evaluation Morgan ( 2006 ) claimed that an assessment technique must be in harmoniousness with wellness publicity criterion which must imply the enterprise of all stakeholders and must besides be an incident that is favourable to all. This assessment must be in line with mensurating the end set down during the planning of the scheme. Since rating is done chiefly to measure the development and the utility of a programme, it is cardinal to garner information during the beginning and shutting of an intercession plan ( Naidoo and Wills 2009, p.296 ) . The type of informations considered necessary for this awaited scheme will affect the usage of the two head agencies of garnering information.i.e. the qualitative and the quantitative method of informations aggregation ( Parry-Langdon et al. , 2003 ) . An impact assessment method of rating will be incorporated into the Sessionss by administering questionnaires to the college pupils to make full in on the sly before the session and immediately after the session to measure their cognition about fleshiness complaint and its hazard before and to mensurate the impact of the scheme on the college pupils after by guaranting they fill in a station -session questionnaire. A focal point group duologue will besides be held among pupils and their coachs to set up if the modus operandi used for the programme executing was a good thought, since a ‘top-down progamme method ‘ ( Laverack, 2005 ) will be implemented. This is needed to turn out the quality of the hereafter programme that will be executed ( Hawe et al. , 1994 ; Nutbeam, 1998 ) . Communication in Health Essay Paper


Fleshiness is regarded as one of the cardinal wellness quandary confronting both the developed and developing society today, and it is cardinal that society are provided with all the indispensable information and support required to better and prolong high-quality wellness. Society is altering and the rational development of the states has led to organisational publicity of an extra ethical, moral and concern behavior that meets the demands of all persons.

The function of communicating in enabling and authorising the public to do intelligent determinations about life is critical to altering behavior, and the attack in which cognition is assimilated goes a long manner in set uping alteration.

To achieve prolong success in wellness publicity, it is really important that work is motivated by utilizing the underside up attack that will affect the people affected right from the beginning of an intercession ( Naidoo and Willis, 2009 ) .

1. 1 Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults. Effective communication skills are important in building positive relationships, as it can help prevent relationship problems. Relationship problems you could encounter like distrust and lack of respect, which can make you unapproachable and build a wall between you. When you have a positive relationship there is much more understanding and people can be more open and receptive to information.

It is important to demonstrate effective communication skills at all times otherwise it may send out conflicting messages and cause confusion. We communicate in many different ways, we not only speak but we also use our body and facial expressions. 1. 2Explain the principles of relationship building with children, young people and adults. There are basic principles that you need to communicate which in turn help build positive healthy relationships- First of all you need to make time to listen to others so you can respond appropriately. Communication in Health Essay Paper

If you rush another person it will make them feel that you are not interested and they will then not want to speak to you about any problems or ask for help / advice in the future. With listening you also need to be able to ask the correct questions, so as to make sure you are aware of the whole situation and not just a small snippet. This will then help you to respond in the correct manner. You need to be considerate and show empathy where needed. It is good to be open minded and consider the other persons view point as well as your own.

If you are unable to answer a question as you lack the knowledge of the subject, be truthful and either re-direct them to the correct person or say I will take a note of that and come back to you with an update later. Show respect and be clear on key information so the other person understands and there is no confusion. It is also good in the correct situation to show humour as it shows you are human too. 1. 3 Explain how different social professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate.

There are different ways in which we can communicate with others and depending on the relationship we have with them, for example I would not write a letter to a young child. Within my role I would communicate to colleagues via e-mail, conversation or notes depending on the situation. When I interact with parents I would converse with them face to face or over the telephone, write notes which in turn may need to be transferred onto the relevant people. However if I was communicating with a child I would speak to them and use different language according to the child’s level of understanding. Communication in Health Essay Paper

When communicating with another person it is not just age that affects the way in which we communicate, but also knowing the background information. You need to understand their culture, as in some cultures it is not polite to look at another person in the eye when speaking to them. However some people may consider that not looking at a person is rude and that you are not paying attention. You also need to consider that not everyone is able to read or as there could be underlying problems such as dyslexia or they have little knowledge of our language. Understand how to communicate with children,

young people and adults 2. 1Explain the skills needed to communicate with children and young people. When communicating with children and young people you may want to sometimes go down to their level physically so they know that you are listening to every word they say and they have your attention. Also think about your facial expression and body language as by giving just a simple smile can encourage a young child to speak. Be patient and give a child some time to speak instead of answering for them, as some children are shy or need extra time to think before they speak. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Make eye contact and give them your attention otherwise they may feel you do not value their opinion or are interested in what they have to say. React and comment on what they say, even if it is to repeat back to them what they have said and correct the language they have used, to show you understand them. Try to maintain the conversation by asking questions this will also model for them ways to maintain conversation. For a child who maybe is older and can communicate effectively, encourage them to ask questions and put ideas forward for discussion. 2.

2Explain how to adapt communication with children and young people for: a) The age of the child or young person You need to adapt the language which you use to communicate with as there is no point in using big technical words if they do not know what they mean. Younger children will need more reassurance to help build their confidence especially if they have just started school, so there may be some contact as a result. Whereas older children will need help with talking through any ideas they have and hold a discussion. b) Context of the communication

I would communicate differently throughout the day with the children I work with. For example during a learning activity I would need to be clear and make sure the children are focused and deal with distractions before they interrupt the session and prevent learning. While on lunchtime or playtime duty I could be more social and humorous. For example I would speak about other interests like afterschool activities or my own family. c) Communication differences You need to consider the communication barriers that may exist, for example they may have a speech disorder which would need more time and reassurance. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Also you need to consider if they are EAL and how much they understand of your language. I would sometimes use pictures, symbols or gestures while I am speaking so they are understanding and also getting the language that we would normally use. Some people may be visually impaired and need specialist equipment or writing increased in size to help them. 2. 3Explain the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children and young people. There are many similarities when speaking to a child and an adult like being respectful, courteous, eye contact, interest and responding appropriately.

But there are a few differences. For example with a child you would need to adapt and make sure that the language you use is at the correct level of understanding for the child and that they understand what is required. Whereas if you were talking to an adult in this manner they could take it as an offence that you are patronising them. With a younger child you would also use a different tone of voice than you would use with an older child or adult. 2. 4Explain how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs of adults.

There are also different ways in which I would need to adapt to communicate effectively with different adults within my role. Some adults may have communication difficulties for example be sight impaired and need letters increased in size so they can read them. Some may even be unable to read the letters so you would need to make time to speak to them and keep them informed of what is occurring and talk them through any forms. Some adults may not speak English as their first language and you may need to simplify the language you use to help them to understand or have someone to translate. Communication in Health Essay Paper

If you had someone who is hard of hearing you would make sure you were facing them so they can lip-read. 2. 5Explain how to manage disagreements with children, young people and adults. When a disagreement arises you need to be sensitive and listen carefully. You will also need to respond carefully so you do not come across in a threatening manner. Be very clear so there are no more miss-understandings. Try to solve the problem promptly as the longer it is left the harder it will be to resolve and could also lead to bad feelings after the fact.

Do not get drawn into a disagreement with a child, manage the situation carefully and seek advice if needed. Understand legislation, policies and procedures for confidentiality and sharing information, including data protection. 3. 1Summarise the main points of legislation and procedures covering confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information When working in a school we need to make sure we are considering the Data Protection Act 1998, this is to ensure that personal confidential information in not shared or used without the individuals consent.

In school we keep a variety of information such as medical information etc. that we need to help care for children effectively within the school. The main data legislations we need to consider for working within are school are: processed fairly and lawfully. used for the purpose for which it was gathered. adequate, relevant and not excessive. accurate and kept up to date where necessary. kept for no longer than required. processed in line with the individual’s rights. kept secure not transferred outside the European Union without adequate protection.

This means we need to be very careful not to pass on any personal information to other parents, other professionals (unless consent has been given by parents) or visitors to the school. 3. 2Explain the importance of reassuring children, young people and adults of the confidentiality of shared information and the limit of this There may be a time when co versing with another adult or child that you may need to state and reassure that the information discussed is confidential and ask or consent to share with other professionals who may need to know . Communication in Health Essay Paper

For example there may be cases of epilepsy, asthma or allergies that need to be known by all staff who would work near that child, so they can help if a medical problem arises. This is still confidential within the school, but there may be a display on the medical room/ office / staff room, and if the school is open to other groups in the evening the display would be removed. There however can be an exception to these rules where information needs to be shared for the safety and welfare of a child.

If this is the case you need to state before the child tells you information that you may need to share the information and cannot promise confidentiality and you may need to refer to someone who can help further. 3. 3Justify the kinds of situation when confidentiality protocols must be breached Confidentiality protocols may need to be breached if you are concerned for the safety and wellbeing of a child. You can decide this by thinking whether by not sharing the outcome could be worse than the outcome of doing so.

The decision to share should never be made as an individual, for example I would report straight to my manager any concerns I may have. The main areas for sharing information without consent are: Where there is evidence that a child is suffering, or at risk of suffering significant harm. Where there is reasonable cause to believe that a child may be suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm. To prevent significant harm arising to children and young people or serious harm to adults, including the prevention, detection and prosecution of serious crime.

People communicate for all types of different reasons, we communicate to express a need or desire, to share ideas and information, to reassure, to express feelings, socialise, to share an experience, all essential for building and maintaining relationships. 1. 2 Communication in the workplace is an essential tool we use to meet the needs of individuals with ABI/LD, great communication skills are integral to the role of a support worker. Support workers need to form trust worthy relationships with family members and the staff team, this maintains the high standards of support/care we provide, delivering a continuity of care. Communication in Health Essay Paper

This level of trust ensures any health and safety or safeguarding issues are flagged and reported. As a support worker I must ensure I communicate effectively with service users giving them informed choices whilst making sure they have been given enough time to consider the options and choices available to them. 2. 1 In my role, communication is the key to establishing a relationship with my service users and understanding the needs and desires, I need to communicate clearly and slowly, using positive body language and gestures.


2. 2 Listening is also an important factor being able to understand and be understood is vital when communicating in the workplace. This ensures that the common goals are met and confusion that could trigger challenging behaviour is eradicated. 2. 3 There are many different ways to communicate directly, talking, sign language, pictures and body language service users with ABI’s need to have choices displayed in front of them so they can fully comprehend the decisions they are going to make. 2. 4

When responding to any service user, as support workers we must show genuine interest in the subject matter that is being discussed, elaborating on the information being given to us by asking questions to stimulate the service user to build on and branch out their communication skills. 3. 1 We all come from different walks of life and when it comes to communicating this can be affected, communicating would be difficult if I had a service user that had a different native language than I, or even two individuals speaking the same language that come from different parts of the country, accents, regional slang can affect communication.

All those factors can be overcome by respecting the diversity of individuals. 3. 2 We have established during communication barriers can become apparent this could be that a service user my suffer from Language barriers, Deafness, slow cognitive processing, partial sighted or Blindness 3. 3 Communication barriers can be overcome by understanding individuals aliments towards communication, putting effective action plans in place so service users can use these methods in all aspects of their life to have a voice and be heard. Communication in Health Essay Paper

3. 4 A plan that could be used to clarify a misunderstanding would be if a service user could not understand ones line of questioning, pictures could be used to combat this if the misunderstanding was still apparent after using this method one could resort to writing down the question and asking it slowly and clearly so that all parties understand what is being asked or requested. 3. 5 Individuals have a number of different ways to access services to help progress with a communication barrier.

Service users with ABI’s sometimes attend SALT (speech and language therapy) sessions this help with cognitive processing and word finding. 4. 1 Confidentiality means that a company has to keep information private unless a individual is at risk to themselves or others or unless ordered to by the law, for example the police can request access to a service users records in the public’s interest to preventing or prosecute a crime, this outweighs the individual’s right to confidentiality or where someone is at risk of death or serious harm.

You may share information with other members of staff only if the information is necessary for the individuals support. 4. 2 Confidentiality is maintained on a day to day basis by only disclosing information on a need to know basis. All paperwork on service user’s are stored in locked cabinets and should be out of view to anyone not permitted to see the information 4. 3 Confidentiality and disclosure is a legal requirement. While confidentiality is highly regarded, disclosures of certain information are vital.

As a support worker, before you pass on any information about any service user to other people, you must seek consent from the service user. However, there are exceptions to that rule, the information can be passed on when others have a right and a need to that information. For example of those who may have the right of service user’s information without recourse to them are: • Managers: they may to need to make/ take decisions for the wellbeing of the service user.

• Other care workers: they may need to have certain information concerning the service user in order for them to perform their duty of care to the service user, examples’ of this is during handing over at the end and start of a shift, it is mandatory for the handing over staff to disclose events of the day concerning service users to those staff taking over duty. • Other professionals: They may need to be kept up to date with information concerning the service user. However, when information is passed to other professionals, it is with the understanding that confidentiality will be preserved. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Visual communication which includes photos, signs and symbols and picture cards Verbal communication which includes talking either on the phone or face to face Non-verbal communication which is sign language, body language and hand gestures. Written communication such as letters and emails. Aii Identify five different reasons why people communicate To give and receive information and instructions. To find out the needs of other people. Share knowledge and opinions between each other. To understand each other and ask questions. To express feelings.

Aiii Give two reasons why it is important to observe the reactions of an individual using the service when you are communicating with them To watch the individual’s body language and understand if they are happy with what is being said and understand what is happening. To see if there are any changes in the individuals behaviour such as anger, frustration or the individual becoming upset, this could indicate abuse or any other safeguarding issues. Aiv Explain why it is important to find out about an individual’s a) Communication and language needs To make sure you can meet the individual’s needs and provide the correct equipment or aid. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Such as pen and paper, hearing aids or just communicating through signs. b) Wishes and preferences To make sure the individual is happy with the service being provided and can feel comfortable with the member of staff and be able to talk to them about any problems or issues they may have. Av Explain how good communication can have a positive effect on the way a social care worker interacts with a) Colleagues It can help with teamwork by understanding how others are working. It also means that everyone will know what is going on and can follow the same methods.

b) Individuals using the service and carers The individuals will learn to trust the care workers and feel confident in talking to them. The carer will also be able to meet the individuals’ needs a lot easier if they can know and understand what those needs are. c) Other professionals Care workers will learn more information about any medical problems/disabilities their clients may have. This will help them to understand how to deal with these situations. It also means that care worker and the individuals’ doctor/dentist/physiotherapist can help the individual as they will have better knowledge of them.

Identify three examples of barriers to communication, and describe ways each barrier could be reduced. Barrier How it can be reduced Language Difference This can be reduced by using body language, gestures, picture cards and if necessary getting an interpreter Cultural difference Learning about their culture could help to reduce this barrier as you will be able to talk about it and understand their needs Hearing/sight impairment This could be overcome by either using sign language, picture cards or hand gestures for hearing impairment or speaking clearly, talking slowly and explaining things clearly to people with sight impairments. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Describe two ways to check that communication has been understood by all involved Make sure their reply makes sense to any question/statement you have asked. If it hasn’t ask them again in a different way. Read their facial expressions, do they look confused or a bit lost by the question or statement? Identify three services, or sources of information and support that enable effective communication in an adult social care setting Interpreting services Speech and languages services Providers of communication equipment such as picture boards

Our facility is going to be changing a lot in the weeks and months to come. As the administration of the nursing home, I am going to make sure that this transition happens as smoothly as possible. The patients that have decided to stay must try their hardest to adhere to the new policies that have been set. The patients that have decided to go somewhere else will very greatly missed. The patients who cannot communicate their decision for one reason or another will be placed where the staff and I see fit, whether it be in our facility or somewhere else.

This facility wants to ensure all patients and residents that we want to make these changes as painless as possible. Thank all of you for the time you have given the staff and me these last ten years, and for the time you will give in the future. There are three different types of communication in the medical field: traditional communication, electronic communication, communication through social media. There are advantages and disadvantages to each different type of communication. Traditional communication includes speaking face to face and mail (letters). Communication in Health Essay Paper

Electronic modes of communication are email phone (home or cell phone), texting, and chatting. Social media involves communicating with several people or just one person at a time using public forums or private messaging through such websites facebook and twitter. Each and every type of communication is equally as important as the other but they all have their own advantages and disadvantages. Traditional forms of communication as simple as can be but they can confuse anyone if every step is not done correctly.

You would think that speaking to someone face to face would be the best way to communicate but this is not always the case. Anyone can miscommunicate what they are trying to say. There can be other barriers like language barriers and also emotional barriers. If someone speaks a different language it can be hard to understand them unless there is an interpreter available, which isn’t always possible. Emotional barriers are hard because when health care is involved things can go wrong and people then become angry, sad, and/or tired. When this happens they may not want to listen to or respond to their doctors.

Face to face communication is good too because you can ask questions then and there, and receive advice from your physician without having to wait too long. Mail can be very annoying because it can take days or weeks to reach its destination and more days or weeks to receive a response. The only good thing about mail would be that you will have documentation of your physician’s opinions and test results. Traditional communication methods have been around for a long time but times are changing and these types of communication are becoming few and far between.

Electronic communication seems to be where most people end up communication, even to our doctors and other health care officials. We call, email, and even text to tell doctors and nurses our health care problems before we even consider actually going to a doctor’s office and speaking to the doctor in person. These communication techniques are good because we can receive answers to our questions also instantly if the health care official isn’t busy. One disadvantage is that someone may not get back to you as soon as you would like; which will leave you at home, wondering what you should do.

Electronic communication isn’t exactly the best form of health care because if the doctor cannot actually see the patient and test their symptoms they cannot defiantly tell a patient what is wrong with them. Social media is becoming more and more popular every day because it is a way to keep in touch with people we don’t see every day. It has also become home for all kinds of new and old information, including health care information. This can be a great way to communicate about health care because people can learn new things about health care and medicine every day. Communication in Health Essay Paper

People can also communicate with organizations full of doctors and nurses who can teach patients about any news in the health care world and advise patients on how to take care of themselves. This may sound great but there are terrible disadvantages to this type of health care communication. You never know who you are actually speaking to on the internet. What could appear to be an organization of doctors and nurses who want to offer free health care advice could be someone who knows absolutely nothing about medicine. Social media websites are not the best place to look for any sort of medical advice because patients want real help.

Promote communication in health and social care or children’s and young people’s settings Unit SHC 31 page 40 of handbook Whether children speak early or late, one language or more are learning to talk along typical lines or are experiencing difficulties, the language acquisition of all children occurs gradually through interaction with people and the environment. Language and communication is a vital part of a child’s life and plays a major role to who they become.

Children will learn to talk in the first 2years of its life so interaction is so important for a newborn as it’s the first ever interaction they have, so what you show them, teach them and say to them will be what they know best as they don’t know any different. A baby will begin by using her tongue, lips, palate, and any emerging teeth to make sounds, ooh and ahhs in the first month or two, babbling starts shortly thereafter, and then on to words such as the common first word da da. Communication in Health Essay Paper

Interaction is so important for the child as this is how the child learns how to interact back, not just with actions but with words too. These words will start of as ma or da but will gradually with help and what they begin to learn will turn into two words together, then into sentences etc. Babies learn languages in one way and that is by hearing language as the parents talk and talk to it. The more a parent can talk to a child, often repeating the same words, same phrases over and over, the sooner the child will learn language. The earliest theory about language development assumed that children acquire language through imitation. Research has shown that children who imitate actions of those around them during their 1st year of life are generally those who also learn to talk more quickly’ www. standards. dfes. gov Communication is a complicated process, with a child receiving a lot of information from adults. These could include, gestures, how you stand, words you speak, tone of voice, loud or soft and your facial expressions.

Adults play a vital role in the development of a child’s language development and their communication skills. The child will pick up its main language skills from its main carer. This is why it is vital that the correct and appropriate language is used. Adults in affect chose how they want their child to speak and tend to chose words for them to learn first. The child will pick up and copy things you say when the speech has reached that level to be able to talk. This can be done by close monitoring and observing language development once beginning o talk. The behaviourists view is that children learn to speak via imitating the words and sentences heard from the people around them, mainly their parents/caretakers. They in turn strengthen the child’s knowledge by repetition, correction and any other reaction that parents/caretakers may provide. This theory is especially associated with B. F. Skinner (1957) who regards language as similar to other kinds of human behaviour. ‘The development and use of communication and language is at the heart of young children’s learning. Communication in Health Essay Paper

The ability to communicate gives children the capacity to participate more fully in their society’. The curriculum guidance, foundation stage, pg 45 It is also important that children’s language skills and development are encouraged but also observed and assessed to make ensure the child is progressing and doesn’t have and speech delays. This can be done by close monitoring and observing language development once beginning to talk. Early Years workers may well pick up on this easier in a childcare setting when the child is playing, taking part in activities, learning and interacting with other children.

Speech problems or delays can normally be picked up easily, babies usually start babbling around 6months, if a child doesn’t start around this age and has no eye contact then there may be a problem. My case study child ‘M’ is 20months old and i have been observing and spending a lot of time with him. M goes to nursery 3days a week and the rest of the time is at home with mum. Mum sends M to nursery 3days a week to give him interaction and the socialisation he needs that he may not get at home. He spends the other days at home so mum is still able to spend quality time with M and be a part of his learning process. Communicating with children requires certain skills. Parents must remember that children are still learning and developing so being able to communicate with them on their own level is imperative. In particular, parents must remember to use vocabulary that can be understood by their child, a calm tone and body language that will not send mixed messages. Parents should also allow plenty of time each day to speak with their children and stay involved in each other’s lives’                           www. kidsbehaviour. co. uk As shown in appendix I, II, III I have put in some f the observations I observed whilst being in the nursery setting into this to show M’s behaviour and language and speech development. All children are different and learn at different rates. Some are fast language learners and some are slow, so it is best not to compare one child’s language development with another’s. The important thing to watch is that language development proceeds steadily, not whether it is fast or slow. I wanted to see how M’s language development was coming along, how it was being encouraged and what skills he had when it came to communicating with others and the world around him. Communication in Health Essay Paper

For my case study child being 20months, here is what he should be doing: 18months: Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words Vocabulary made up chiefly of nouns Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over) Much jargon with emotional content Is able to follow simple commands: Referring to appendix I, M showed that he is learning to talk and does understand simple things. When I got given a cup of tea in a mug, he automatically said juice, so he knew that my tea was a drink and therefore he wanted some juice and asked for it.

M also showed that he has learnt how to start counting as when playing with the Lego he started to count on his own. He did miss the 1 out but when I gave him praise and told him to do it again with a little help he did it. ‘According to Skinner (behaviourist theorist) he suggests that children learn language through reinforcement. In other words, when a parent or carer shows enthusiasm for something a child tries to say, this should encourage the child to repeat the utterance’. This shows that reinforcement has a positive effect for a child’s learning.

During the observation ‘M’ showed some non-verbal communication when other child picked up one of his toys he was playing. He immediately whimpered to me, was making lots of eye contact to me and frowned and slapped his hands together. This was showing ‘M’ making non-verbal communication as he wasn’t happy about talking his toy. Referring to appendix II, ‘M’ showed good communication skills throughout and his use of knowledge of his language. Receptive language was shown in the observation by ‘M’.

Caroline Bowen 1998, states 1-2yrs: •        Your child can point to pictures in a book when you name them and can point to body parts when asked. •        Can follow simple commands ‘push the bus’ •        Understand questions ‘where’s the bear? ‘ •        Likes simple stories and enjoys songs and nursery rhymes. He showed that he has learnt words and can recognize these to pictures and objects in a book. He could understand what I was asking him and understood what to do when I asked him e. g. where is the bear, where is the ball etc. Parents should read to their children as often as possible. The secret however which will lead to optimal language development, is to read the SAME stories over and over again’. www. homeparents. about. com ‘M’ also showed that he understands the animals have a language too, and that they make different noises. Again this is from being taught through interaction with me. ‘M’ showed some echolalia in the observation. This is repeating a word or saying a word over and over. In the garden ‘M’ showed this when running around and said the word go three times when racing with ‘J’.

Expressive language (learning to speak and use language) was shown by ‘M’ here as he started to realise that ‘J’ had gone and turned and looked at me and told me that he had gone. ‘M’ seemed to enjoy interacting with J and he wasn’t shy to express his language. J is older than M so J is a lot more fluent in his speech but M seems to love interacting with J and chat along to him. Birth to three matters quotes that children are skilful communicators and children use their voices to make contact, let people know what they need and how they feel. Communication in Health Essay Paper

They are also starting to learn about ‘conversation’, which requires the ability to listen and respond appropriately, and to learn the ‘rules’ of communication through making meaning with the familiar people in their lives ‘Being together bleads to the wider development of social relations so that children become adept at forming friendships, being able to empathise, share emotions and experiences. It is through these interactions and upon these foundations that they become competent language users’. Birth to three matters pg. 65 In the observations that i observed ‘M’ has shown a wide variety of communication and language.

He will say what he knows and is willing to learn when helped and prompted in the right direction. Milestones for his age show that he is average and on borderline for his learning and doesn’t seem to have any problems or delays in his speech. He shows good non-verbal communication skills and a lot of it. Because he is still learning and trying to express and develop his speech, non-verbal communication gets used a lot to express his feelings. This is anything from frowning, eye contact or body posture. When ‘M’ didn’t get his own way he used his arms a lot with frustration e. . slapping his hands together, putting his hands over his eyes so no one could look at him etc. When babies haven’t got there full language skills and full vocabulary they will use a lot of non-verbal communication and it helps them to interact with their feeling and let others know how they feel and what they are thinking. In some of the observations i did over time, which aren’t in the appendix, ‘M’ has shown that when by himself he’ll keep himself to himself and won’t express his language as much but when around people he’s not afraid to say ‘ello ello’ or ‘bye bye’. Communication in Health Essay Paper

When playing with ‘J’ referring to appendix II it showed that his communication skills perked up when with someone else, meaning a child he could play with. He wasn’t shy to express his strength of his voice i. e. screaming and shouting. As J is slightly older than M, it’s like M looks up and listens to J and tries to understand some of his vocabulary and tries to copy some of the sounds and noises he makes. M has shown that he can say words that he has learnt but can also put two words together to start to make sense of what is going on e. . saying bye bye he knew to say this and wave when someone was going. He has shown plenty of receptive language, learning to listen and to understand language. He shows he’s a keen communicator and will willingly listen to me and others teach him things and he has shown he can respond well and understand commands and questions. e. g where is…? or go and get this etc. Referring to Skinner, he thinks interaction and reinforcement play a big role in the development of children’s language.


I think this theorist relates to child M as he showed that he responded better to mum when she was interacting with him and talking to him about things, as he seemed to interact back more and be interested in what she was doing and saying to him. Also reinforcement helped child M as he loved getting praised for things he had done or said and it made him want to repeat the words knowing that he was going to get praise. Word count: 2170 (Not including references or appendix I, II) References: www. homeparents. about. com www. standards. dfes. gov. uk www. surestart. gov. uk www. eachingexpertise. com Babies and Young Children, Beaver, Nelson Thornes 2001, Appendix I: Observation I: Ello, ello ello ‘M’ says repeatedly to me with a big grin on his face when I entered the room. I sit on the sofa; he excitedly stumbles over to his toys and points at something. He picks up a fire truck and brings it over ‘wowww’ he says with his mouth wide open and his eyes fixed to the truck as if it was something he had never seen before. Someone brings me over a cup of tea, ‘M’ points to this and says ‘juice’ clearly, repeats the word again and takes my hand. ‘Do you want some juice? I asked and passed him his juice, ‘M’ smiles and takes a sip and then places it onto the floor. Do you want a biscuit I asked M, ‘NNoooo’ he loudly shouts with a frown on his face. ‘M’ brings me over a piece of Lego and shakes his head and says no again. ‘Shall we build a big tower with your Lego M? ‘ I started to take the Lego out of the box and he started to copy me and started to throw the Lego onto the carpet. He holds two bits together and tries to fix them together. ‘2, 3, 4′ he starts to count with the Lego. 2 and 3 being very clear to understand but 4 with a struggle. Yes, very good M, do it again… 1… she starts’. ‘1… 2… ‘ and then he stops. ‘M’ giggles and shakes his head from side to side. Appendix II: Observation 2: ‘M’ pushes way through piles of books on the floor looking for something that catches his eye. He picks up a small dullish book and places it behind him. He then makes a groaning sound and picks up a brightly coloured large book. The book is a word book he picks up, with plenty of pictures and objects with their words. ‘M’ walks over to me and passed it to me then climbed up onto the chair and sits staring at the book. ‘M’ points at the book. Communication in Health Essay Paper

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