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CPY3330 Research Project In Psychology

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CPY3330 Research Project In Psychology

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CPY3330 Research Project In Psychology

1 Download6 Pages / 1,333 Words

Course Code: CPY3330
University: The University Of Sheffield

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:

Research proposal.
Topic: Cardiovascular Disease in Older Greek Adults and Cognitive Performance 

The write-up of the research proposal should focus on a brief illustration of the research topic, a clear statement of the research gap, the research question, the research hypothesis.

Answer:

Introduction
Literature Review
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been associated with old age and according to World Health Organization, CVD were among the leading causes of non-communicable diseases by 2012. As such, more than 17.5million deaths were from CVD. In Greece, 38% of mortality rate have been attributed to CVD (Lim et al., 2012).  According to Zeki Al Hazzouri et al. (2014) that risk factors of CVD have also been associated with functionality decline of cognition performance. Old people suffer from disorders that arise from cognitive ability such as memory loss and dementia. One of the factors that have contributed to the high prevalence of CVD among old people is due to reluctance in mitigating single risk factors which consequently lead to brutal conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and severe cognitive decline (Gikas et al., 2016). Environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors have been used hugely used in examining how healthy habits as well as lifestyle can impact the functioning of brain as well as human behavior throughout their life.
Research Gap
Although extensive research have been conducted among older Greek adults concerning CVD and they have been showing the increasing incidences of CVD with age, morbidity and mortality among the older people have been underrepresented.  The current research have not been able to provide an evidence-based recommendations with regard to diagnosis and treatment of these patients. There is need to incorporate the affected and share  decision making with them on how they need to be taken care of so as to reduce  prevalence of CVD.
Research Question
This research will be guided by the research question that what are the various cardiovascular risks that are associated with old age? 
Research Hypothesis
The research hypothesized that the old age have a direct relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases and decline in cognitive performance. 
Proposed Methodology
Participants
For the purpose of this research, various articles will be considered that had conducted vast research on CVD and cognitive functions. However, the research considered articles that focused on older Greek adults and with this regard whose participants were 120 elderly individuals who are 65 years and above. Eligibility criteria for the participation will be over 65 years as stated earlier, both sexes and literate with education four years and above. In addition to this, as Bastien et al. (2014) suggests, the research will consider participants if they had one or more of the following conditions; cardiac surgery, myocardinal infarction,  However, individuals with the following characteristics were excluded from the study; neurodegenerative or psychiatric disease, those using psychoactive drugs and those with dementia. A systematic review of the longitudinal of the study will be essential in ensuring that there is enough data and information concerning CVD and cognitive performance. 
Measures
At baseline, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) will be considered. Other aspects to be measured are the social economic variables such as education, household income, and major lifetime occupation. Education will be important due to its relationship with cognitive health.
Design
The association between the categorical variables will be investigated using the analysis of contingency tables. Pearson’s correlation will be used as Thayer, Yamamoto & Brosschot (2010) note that it is a good method to examine relationship between cognitive scores and age. Additionally, regression analysis will be used to investigate the effect of multiple variables on the cognitive scores.  Also, the research will focus on interactions between CVD and education and time in models of cognitive functions as well as the dementia. The models will focus on the intercepts and slopes. 2-way interactions will also be useful in determining the interactions between the CVD risk by education level and incidences of disorders such as dementia.
Procedure
The methods to be used in this study will be approved by the Local Institutional Review Board where consent will be given to the authors of the articles and any participant if required.  Townsend et al. (2016) notes that it is prudent to consider medical history by considering blood pressure monitoring which has been completed using an echo cardiogram.  In order to ensure that the information will be used correctly, the study will be approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University.
Ethics
One of the aspects to be considered in the research is confidentiality. The medical history obtained from the articles will be considered private and it will only be used for academic purposes. Bibbins-Domingo (2016) asserts that Research Ethics Committee should be largely involved to ensure that information is obtained in the correct manner and that all rules such have been complied with. This will ensure that that the research is credible and reliable and that it can be used for future purposes. The Committee will also ensure that the research will add knowledge into the area of study of CVD and cognitive performance.
Proposed Analysis
A series of analysis will be conducted to investigate the relationship between blood pressure and the cognitive functions in older people with CVD. The study will consider a hierarchical cluster analysis which will help in determining the possibility of subgroups of blood pressure and their changes. Nichols et al. (2014) note that by analyzing the patterns of blood pressure it will help in identifying mechanism for the association between cognitive functions and blood pressure. In addition to this, there will be partial correlation tests between the cognitive scores and variables such as age and education. Also, multivariate linear regression will be used to investigate relationship between cognitive assessment test scores and the cardiovascular risk factors. The variables to be used for this analysis are age and education. The significance level will be set at p<0.05.  Implication The findings of the results will determine the significance of age on the development of CVD and cognitive function which will be an important research to the physicians, government and the people in general. The research will help in closing the gap by ensuring that the physicians are aware of the factors that contribute to the development of CVD and they will be required to take actions to ensure the prevalence of these conditions are reduced. For instance, by advising old people on the type of food that they may eat or the manner in which they should live in order to reduce increase of blood pressure and heart failures. Also, the findings will be necessary to the government to conduct a campaign of good care towards the old people. References Bastien, M., Poirier, P., Lemieux, I., & Després, J. P. (2014). Overview of epidemiology and contribution of obesity to cardiovascular disease. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 56(4), 369-381. Bibbins-Domingo, K. (2016). Aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of internal medicine, 164(12), 836-845. Gikas, A., Lambadiari, V., Sotiropoulos, A., Panagiotakos, D., & Pappas, S. (2016). Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease in a sample of Greek adults: the saronikos study. The open cardiovascular medicine journal, 10, 69. Lim, S. S., Vos, T., Flaxman, A. D., Danaei, G., Shibuya, K., Adair-Rohani, H., ... & Aryee, M. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The lancet, 380(9859), 2224-2260. Nichols, M., Townsend, N., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2014). Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update. European heart journal, 35(42), 2950-2959. Thayer, J. F., Yamamoto, S. S., & Brosschot, J. F. (2010). The relationship of autonomic imbalance, heart rate variability and cardiovascular disease risk factors. International journal of cardiology, 141(2), 122-131. Townsend, N., Wilson, L., Bhatnagar, P., Wickramasinghe, K., Rayner, M., & Nichols, M. (2016). Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update 2016. European heart journal, 37(42), 3232-3245. Zeki Al Hazzouri, A., Haan, M. N., Deng, Y., Neuhaus, J., & Yaffe, K. (2014). Reduced heart rate variability is associated with worse cognitive performance in elderly Mexican Americans. Hypertension, 63(1), 181-187. Free Membership to World's Largest Sample Bank To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put your valid email id. E-mail Yes, alert me for offers and important updates Submit  Download Sample Now Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days. UploadUnique Document DocumentUnder Evaluation Get Moneyinto Your Wallet Total 6 pages PAY 4 USD TO DOWNLOAD *The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as unique. Cite This Work To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: APA MLA Harvard OSCOLA Vancouver My Assignment Help. (2021). Research Project In Psychology. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cpy3330-research-project-in-psychology/cardiovascular-disease.html. "Research Project In Psychology." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cpy3330-research-project-in-psychology/cardiovascular-disease.html. My Assignment Help (2021) Research Project In Psychology [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/cpy3330-research-project-in-psychology/cardiovascular-disease.html[Accessed 19 December 2021]. My Assignment Help. 'Research Project In Psychology' (My Assignment Help, 2021) accessed 19 December 2021.

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