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Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

The background and context

 The disease caused by the Ebola virus (BVVE), also widely known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe and often deadly illness in all humans. This particular disease can be picked up by a close contact with an infected person. His or her blood, sweat, vomit, feces, urine, saliva or semen can be very dangerous for ordinary people. The virus can be transmitted to humans from different animals (dogs, chimpanzees, monkeys and bats) and among humans from person to person. In addition, it is possible to catch this virus through fluids that can transmitted by scratches, wounds, nose, mouth or eyes. Blood or vomit, urine or feces are one of the most infected body fluids.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

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There is no doubt that Ebola is not the flu itself. Fever cannot be transmitted by airborne droplets. As a result, you cannot catch this virus, for instance, from an infected person sitting next to you in the subway and the bus. The reasons for the rapid spread of the epidemic are weak hygiene and sanitation, funeral customs. Local people intentionally harbor ill persons from doctors and secretly bury their dead, though in order to avoid contamination of drinking water, the bodies of the dead from the epidemic must be burned. In fact, a burial is one of the most important rituals in West Africa. It is believed that before the funeral of the deceased his or her family must verify that the “soul finally left the body.” In order to carry out this ceremony, his or her body should be carried to a terraced house. Then the relatives fumigate one’s body with herbs and wait several days to several months. When relatives are convinced that people really died, then they begin to arrange the funeral itself. Before a burial, the body is washed and in some West African countries all the body is shaved (for magic rituals). All of these procedures usually lead to people’s infections exposed to a corpse. The graves are usually dug out near the villages. For those who died from a serious illness, the graves are usually dug out near streams, which can lead to the fact that the Ebola virus can be spread to others.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Only in August, the Government of Liberia ordered to burn the bodies in order to prevent the Ebola virus. However, in Liberia and Guinea many locals ignore the authorities’ orders and bury their tribesmen, observing all the rituals that lead to further infection.

The measures to combat the epidemic are complicated by the fact that at the moment there is no specific treatment or vaccine for either humans or animals. Several trials of vaccines have been conducted, but anyway there were no appropriate vaccine for clinical use. Seriously ill patients require intensive symptomatic therapies. In severe cases, individuals infected with this particular disease require intensive supportive therapies. Patients often suffer from dehydration and are in need of intravenous fluids or oral rehydration with solutions containing various electrolytes. In the absence of effective treatments and vaccines, national policies and programs aimed at raising awareness of the risk factors for infection with the Ebola virus and individual protection measures is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality among people.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

The risks of Ebola to Papua New Guinea 

 There is no doubt that the Ebola virus threat to Papua New Guinea is quite slim, and thus, the World Health Organization is keeping a critical lookout for a possible outbreak. As a result, “as part of the country’s preparedness, the Department of Health together with the WHO have been conducting training and awareness campaigns for health workers and have identified possible treatment sites in case of an outbreak” (World Health Organization, 2014, para. 2). In fact, the Ebola disease is unknown to occur in Papua New Guinea, so the patients “…who have developed unexplained fever within three weeks after returning from West Africa must seek immediate medical help” (World Health Organization, 2014, para. 3).Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Moreover, it is possible to remember about the major facts concerning the Ebola virus in order to be prepared for this disease. For instance, the incubation period, i.e. the time interval from infection to the onset of symptoms is from 2 to 21 days. People are not contagious before symptoms appear. The first symptoms are the sudden appearance of fever, muscle aches, headache and sore throat. This is followed by diarrhea, rash, renal failure and liver and, in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g., a discharge of blood from the gums, blood in the stool).

However, it is possible to remember that “the poor capacity of the health system in PNG to control infectious diseases is illustrated by the continuing high transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of highly resistant TB strains” (Toole, 2014, para. 7).  Despite the fact that the PNG government has introduced a national program concerning the Ebola virus, the country’s abilities to help infected patients and prevent the spread of this disease is very limited.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Significance

 The major significance lies in the fact that an ongoing outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa (the first cases were recorded in March 2014) is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the detection of the virus in 1976. During this outbreak many people became ill and died due to those negative events. It also spreads between countries, starting in Guinea and spreading in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria and Senegal. In fact, “Ebola virus gained widespread attention in the fall of 2014 when an outbreak in West Africa became the largest outbreak reported in history. In this outbreak, imported case from Liberia and associated locally acquired cases in health-care workers were identified in the U.S. Infection with Ebola virus in humans is incidental – humans do not “carry” the virus” (“Definition of Ebola virus,” n.d., para. 2).  In addition to this, it is possible to add that “Ebola virus is a hazard to laboratory workers and, for that matter, anyone who is exposed to it. The way in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak has not been determined” (“Definition of Ebola virus,” n.d., para. 2). But despite this fact, it has been supposed that the first patient becomes infected through the different contacts with infected animals. Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

The most seriously affected countries such as Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, experiencing a shortage of staff and infrastructure resources, and only recently they could overcome the persistent conflicts and instability.

The measures they should take to prepare for any possible outbreak
In order to prevent the infection of Ebola hemorrhagic fever citizens are strongly encouraged to refrain from trips to Central and West Africa without urgent need;
In these countries, it is important to use the protective masks and refrain from visiting crowded places and contacting with sick people with fever;
In order to prevent this disease, it is advised to regularly ventilate rooms, clean the rooms, and try to adhere to personal hygiene, do not buy some goods in unauthorized places;
When you have symptoms of the disease, it is important to wear a mask and immediately seek medical care;
When you have a fever or other symptoms when returning from a trip, it is required to see a doctor, providing information about the countries visited and the duration of stay.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

It can be difficult to distinguish the Ebola virus from other infectious diseases, such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Hence, in order to confirm that the symptoms are caused by the Ebola virus, it is possible to conduct the following researches:

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with capture antibodies (ELISA);
tests for detection of antigens;
serum neutralization test;
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);
electron microscopy;
isolation of the virus in cell cultures.

Specimens from patients present an extreme biohazard. Laboratory testing of inactivated samples should be carried out under maximum biological containment.

By talking about treatment and vaccines, it is possible to say about the following ones: 1) therapy with oral or intravenous administration of fluids; 2) blood products, immune and drug therapy. However, it is possible to say that licensed vaccines do not yet exist, but the two potential vaccines are tested for safety in humans.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Qualitative measures against outbreaks are based on a set of activities, namely, case management, surveillance and contact tracing, quality laboratory services, safe burial and social mobilization. In addition, the involvement of local communities is very important in the successful control of outbreaks. The effective ways to reduce transmission of the disease among humans is to raise awareness about the risk factors of the Ebola virus and personal protection measures. The steps on risk reduction should be focused on the following factors: 1) reducing the risk of transmission from wild animals to humans through contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys / apes and their consumption of raw meat. When dealing with animals, it is important to utilize the gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Before eating some food, it is necessary to cook it thoroughly; 2) Reducing the risk of transmission of infection from person to person as a result of direct or close contact with people who have symptoms of the Ebola virus, especially with liquids of the organism. When caring for patients at home, it is important to wear gloves and appropriate personal protection. After visiting the sick in hospitals and nursing home, it is necessary to wash one’s hands regularly; and 3) measures to reduce outbreaks include the following ones: the rapid and safe burial of the dead, the identification of individuals may have had contact with anyone from the infected people, monitoring the health status of people who have had contact with patients, the importance of the separation of healthy and sick people in order to prevent further transmission, the importance of proper hygiene and maintenance of cleanliness. Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

 The key issues of strategic significance

 Strategic issues are usually explored near the end of the strategic analysis activity. In order to address various issues, it is important to pay attention to the questions and fundamental purposes. In addition, it is necessary to write down the issues concerning, for example, the Ebola virus in order to understand the description of each issue and then take all the measures in order to overcome this disease.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

The measures they should take should there be any identified case

 There is no doubt that any identified case of the Ebola virus should be measured in a proper way. However, it is possible to remember that there is no specific treatment for the Ebola virus. In such a case, it is possible to speak about symptomatic treatment aimed at alleviating the course of the disease and combating dehydration and toxic shock. At the slightest suspicion of Ebola, regardless of the severity of the disease, the patient should be urgently hospitalized and isolated in a separate box with exhaust ventilation. In addition, the patient should be administered oxygen inhalation through a nasal catheter. In order to control blood clotting, it is important to apply heparin intravenously (since death often occurs as a result of extensive internal bleeding). This disease is characterized by the fact that the immune reactivity is reduced; therefore it is important to introduce human immunoglobulin. Moreover, it is advised to maintain a normal blood pressure, treatment of complications and comorbidities. The specific prevention of the disease does not exist, as the source of the virus has not been studied thoroughly. However, there are a number of techniques that can minimize the risk of infection with fever, for example, the patient’s isolation (or the patient with suspected fever). The infected persons are placed in a separate box with a system of autonomous life support within 30 days from the onset. All the household items are marked in a proper way and are strictly individual, disinfect and are stored in a specific box. In order to protect the health care workers and relatives of the patient, it is necessary to wear special protective masks, gloves and glasses. Their particular attention should be paid to the biological materials and the blood of patients. For treatment it is critical to use disposable instruments, and then they are either incinerated or autoclaved.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Recommendations for improvement
Reducing the risk of transmission from wild animals to humans through contact with infected bats or monkeys / apes and consumption of raw meat.
Reducing the risk of transmission of infection from person to person in some communities as a result of direct or close contact with infected patients, especially with liquids of the organism.
Communities affected by Ebola should inform the public about the nature of the disease and the measures to contain the outbreak, including the cremation of the dead.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper
Conclusion

 Taking the abo-mentioned information into consideration, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the Ebola virus, also widely known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe illness in all humans that can lead to various negative events. The virus can be transmitted to humans from different animals (dogs, chimpanzees, monkeys and bats) and among humans from person to person. In addition, there are other ways people can catch this deadly virus. It includes fluids that can transmitted by scratches, wounds, nose, mouth or eyes. What is more, blood or vomit, urine or feces are one of the most well-known infected body fluids. In fact, Ebola is not the flu itself. Fever cannot be transmitted by airborne droplets.

The major reasons for the rapid spread of the epidemic are poor knowledge of hygiene and sanitation, funeral customs. All these factors can lead to the fact that the Ebola virus can be spread to others.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

All in all, in order to prevent the Ebola virus, it is strongly recommended to refrain from trips to Central and West Africa without urgent need. In these countries, it is essential to utilize the protective masks and refrain from visiting crowded places and contacting with sick people with fever. In addition, in order to prevent this disease, individuals are required to regularly ventilate rooms, clean the rooms, and try to adhere to personal hygiene.

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References

Definition of Ebola virus. (2014, October 17). Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6518

Doherty, P. (2014, July 31). How threatened are we by Ebola virus? Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-07-31/doherty-how-threatened-are-we-by-ebola-virus/5638438

Feldmann, H. (2014). Ebola — A Growing Threat?. N. Engl. J. Med., 371 (15), 1375–8.

Feldmann, H. K. (1993). Molecular biology and evolution of filoviruses. Archives of virology. Supplementum, 7, 81–100.

Jenkins, G. M., Rambaut, A., Pybus, O. G., & Holmes, E. C. (2002). Rates of molecular evolution in RNA viruses: A quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 54 (2),  156–65.Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

Klenk, H. D., & Feldmann, H. (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Horizon Bioscience.

Mayo, M. A. (2002). ICTV at the Paris ICV: results of the plenary session and the binomial ballot. Archives of Virology, 147 (11), 2254–60.

The World Health Organization. (2014). WHO & NDoH vigilant over Ebola threat in PNG. Retrieved from http://www.wpro.who.int/papuanewguinea/mediacentre/ebola-threat-low-in-PNG/en/

Toole, M. (2014, November 4). How would Papua New Guinea deal with Ebola? Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/how-would-papua-new-guinea-deal-with-ebola-33190. Definition of Ebola Virus Research Paper

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