Dental Health PICO Essay
Dental Health PICO Essay
This paper analytically examines the issue of whether topical fluoride can be effective in the management and reduction of tooth hypersensitivity. The essay shall compare whether using this topical fluoride is more effective when compared to the application of fluoride Iontophoresis. The PICO format shall be employed in analyzing three research papers related to this topic.
a) Article One.
Pesevska, S., Nakova, M., Ivanovski, K., Angelov, N., Kesic, L., Obradovic, R., & . Nares, S. (2010). Dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing: comparison of low-level laser and topical fluoride treatment. Lasers In Medical Science, 25 (5), 647-650.
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The authors of this paper carried out this study to investigate and compare the efficiency in using topical fluoride and laser techniques in the treatment of tooth sensitivity. This article illustrates the benefits of using fluoride treatment through topical application and how this technique is more superior and effective compared to low laser radiation (Pesevska et al, 2010). Dental Health PICO Essay.
At the same time, these two techniques are compared for efficacy when it comes to the management and treatment of tooth hypersensitivity.
This research study employed the use of fifteen patients who acted as an experimental group. This small sample size of n=15 was meant to monitor closely the effects of each individual and the response of the teeth towards sensitive items (Pesevska et al, 2010). The sampled participants were each treated with a diode laser that had a low energy level on each side. This diode was meant to monitor the hypersensitivity level of teeth after the respective individual underwent the process of root canal, root planning and scaling (Pesevska et al, 2010).
The methodology also had a control group where fifteen other patients (n=15) were given the topical fluoride treatment. The latter contained a combination of protective varnish and fluoride that was meant to desensitize the teeth. All these sampled participants or patients were given a baseline encounter after which the pain and hypersensitivity of teeth was measured on a two-day interval. This pain was rated as low, medium or high by each of the patients subjected to this study Dental Health PICO Essay.
The findings of this study indicated that the occurrence of tooth hypersensitivity was significantly reduced by 26.7%. These results were achieved on the second day after the treatment was administered to the patients (Pesevska et al, 2010). This is in contrast to the control group that was given topical fluoride for treatment of teeth hypersensitivity that did not report any decrease or changes after this medication was administered. The complete absence of tooth hypersensitivity was only reported when the patients were given low laser treatment. In fact, the results showed that at least 87% of the patients who received diode laser treatment showed lesser hypersensitivity of teeth as compared to a dismal 26% of patients who were given topical fluoride treatment (Pesevska et al, 2010).
This research study settled for the use of a small sample size that is not representative of the entire human population that suffers from teeth hypersensitivity problems. Therefore, the findings could not be graphically drawn to indicate that the treatment regimen tested is conclusive based on the given sample size (Pesevska et al, 2010). A larger number of participants could have been sampled so as to make the study more representative and improve the validity of the findings. Dental Health PICO Essay.
The authors of this paper concluded that the use of diode laser treatment of low energy is one of the successful ways of managing and treating tooth hypersensitivity (Pesevska et al, 2010). This is in comparison to the use of topical fluoride that yields less success since it does not manage to completely eradicate tooth pain or issues of sensitivity.
b) Article Two
Chen, L., Meng, Q., Chen, Y., Smales, R., & Yip, K. (2008). Effects of fluoride iontophoresis on the reduction of teeth sensitivity and microtensile bond strength between dentin and two adhesive systems. Journal Of Dentistry, 36 (9), 697-702.
Chen et al (2008) carried out this study to evaluate and determine the effect of using fluoride iontophoresis in reducing tooth hypersensitivity. This technique was mainly applied to determine the tensile strength of bonds between the coronal dentin and two additional adhesive systems. Additionally, the tubule occlusion was also measured quantitatively with regards to its role in minimizing the sensitivity of teeth.
The researchers made use of twelve teeth that were obtained from willing individuals who were made known about the study. These teeth were the third molars that were divided into four different groups (Chen et al, 2008). The first group involved treatment with a total adhesive system only while the second group was treated with the same adhesive after undergoing treatment with fluoride iontophoresis. The third group was treated with a different adhesive known as a “self-etching” system. Finally, the fourth group was treated with the same adhesive after fluoride iontophoresis was administered. These four groups were also fixed with a composite resin that was meant to produce additional beams to enhance their tensile strength. Dental Health PICO Essay.
The results of this experiment were obtained after each test was treated differently through fluoride iontophoresis. The four groups were passed through scanning electron microscopes or SEMs where the images were recorded and analyzed through statistical software. The results were analyzed through the use of analysis of variance or ANOVA, probability and significant difference tests (Chen et al, 2008). According to the results, there was a significant difference (P ≤0. 02) among the groups that were treated with fluoride iontophoresis. The other groups that did not undergo the latter process registered no significant difference (P=0.92) in terms of reducing the sensitivity of teeth.
This experimental research made use of different statistical tools that did not properly capture the effectiveness of using fluoride iontophoresis as a mode of treating hypersensitivity in the teeth. Moreover, the use of molar teeth extracted from patients could not be deemed as a viable way of determining the reduction of pain (Chen et al, 2008). The alternative approach of measuring tubule occlusion is so not very appropriate with regards to the management of this dental condition.
This research study was able to conclude that the use of fluoride iontophoresis is an effective way of treating the occurrence of hypersensitivity in the teeth. The significant increase in the tubule occlusion was used as the indicator of the level of effectiveness of this technique (Chen et al, 2008). Hence, dentists can recommend to their patients that the hypersensitivity in the teeth can be significantly reduced and managed through the implementation of fluoride iontophoresis. Dental Health PICO Essay.
c) Article Three
Vrbi., B,. Caron;, V., & B. Košmelj, V. (2008). Efficacy and Cost analysis: Comparison of topical fluoride application and fluoride iontophoresis over a 3-year period. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 6 (5), 269-272. doi:10.1111/1600-
This research was conducted through a longitudinal form of study that sought to compare the efficiency in treatment for both topical fluoride use and fluoride iontophoresis over a three-year period (Vrbi et al, 2008). The study aimed at investigating which among these two techniques is more appropriate in terms of both efficacy and cost as well.
The study employed the use of three groups of patients who were subjected to different forms of treatment. The first group was placed under topical application of fluoride; the second group was administered with fluoride iontophoresis procedures while the third group was used as the control (Vrbi et al, 2008). These forms of treatment were subjected to the patients for a period of three years with intervals of four months each.
The results of this study showed that the effectiveness of the topical application of fluoride in treating tooth hypersensitivity was estimated to have a success rate of 30%. In terms of the costs, topical application was also much cheaper and more affordable. On the contrary, the use of fluoride iontophoresis was more efficient at 86% success rate (Vrbi et al, 2008). However, this technique proved to be quite expensive for patients who suffered from severe or acute teeth hypersensitivity. Dental Health PICO Essay.
The duration of this research study was too long such that the patients and sampled individuals would have easily grown tired or weary. Additionally, the financial implications of this study were too high considering the extended time frame employed in the process of comparing the efficacy of these two techniques.
This research was able to illustrate that fluoride iontophoresis is very effective when it comes to the management and reduction of issues of hypersensitivity in the teeth. However, the process can be quite costly due to the technical aspects involved (Vrbi et al, 2008). On the other hand, the use of topical application of fluoride is less effective but affordable altogether. Therefore, fluoride iontophoresis should be the recommended regimen for minimizing teeth hypersensitivity for people facing a recurrent problem in their dental area.
Chen, L., Meng, Q., Chen, Y., Smales, R., & Yip, K. (2008). Effects of fluoride iontophoresis on the microtensile bond strength between dentin and two adhesive systems. Journal of Dentistry, 36 (9), 697-702.
Pesevska, S., Nakova, M., Ivanovski, K., Angelov, N., Kesic, L., Obradovic, R., & … Nares, S. (2010). Dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing: comparison of low- level laser and topical fluoride treatment. Lasers in Medical Science, 25 (5), 647-650. doi:10.1007/s10103-009-0685-0
Vrbi&bcaron;, V., & B. Košmelj, V. (1978). Cost analysis of 3 years of topical fluoride application. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 6 (5), 269-272. doi:10.1111/1600- 0528.ep12103578 Dental Health PICO Essay