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Dental Radiology Apparatus And Signal Processing

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Dental Radiology Apparatus And Signal Processing

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Dental Radiology Apparatus And Signal Processing

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1. What are the basic principles for producing quality images through manual processing of x-rays?
2. Explain how radiographic stock is stored and maintained at your practice.  Where do you store your radiographic stock?  What are the benefits of your stocktaking and ordering processes?
3. Digital radiography is increasingly used in dental practices.  Using your own workplace examples, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the main types of digital radiography.  What is digital radiography, and when is it used in your practice? If digital radiography is not used at your practice, answer the questions hypothetically.
4. Explain how you would prepare this patient for the OPG.  Is the patient in the image correctly positioned?


Methods used when preparing film for processing in an automatic processor

Switching off the over-head light and turning on the safe light
Placing the film over the clean working surface by handling it over the edges
Inserting the unwrapped film into the film feed slot of the process one in a single go
10 seconds buffer time between insertions of each film
Precaution in turning the films in sideways or quickly in order to prevent overlap
After films have been inserted, 4 to 6 minutes of time is required for automated processing
Retrieval of the processed radiographs from the film recovery slot

Automated processor has a light shielded compartment that is equipped with transport mechanism that picks up the unwrapped film and makes it pass through the different sections like developing, fixing, washing and drying sections. The automated system has a series of roller that moves the film through the developing solution at constant speed (Boucly et al. 2013).
Answer 1
The manual processing of X-ray film mainly deals with the transformation of the latent images into visible images. This transformation of the latent images into visible images is known as processing. Processing consists of developing, rinsing, fixing, washing and drying (Boucly et al. 2013).

Developing: Conversion of latent image into black metallic silver. The film is dipped into the developer solution which reduces energized ionized silver bromide crystals via adding electrons and subsequently removing halides. This precipitates the metallic silver in the emulsion layer. The negative charge of the electrons attracts the free silver ions and thereby further reducing it into black metallic atoms.
Wash: Removal of excess developer and the gelatine emulsion. This is done via placing the film into a water bath. The washing as reduces the alkalinity of the residual developer and thereby ceasing the reaction
Fixing or hardening: Help to dissolve unexposed halide crystals. This is because unexposed silver halides are insoluble in water
Washing: Removes products of processing
Drying: Removes extra water

Floating thermometer, a timer and the time – temperature are three crucial ingredients in manual X-ray film processing (Boucly et al. 2013).
Answer 2
Storage and maintenance of the unprocessed and/or unexposed film occur inside a card board box through which the light cannot pass. Inside the cardboard box, the film remains wrapped in moisture-proof wrap so that the film remains dry. The card board box is stored in cool and dry place with the temperature between 10 to 24 degree C. The film is stored away from the X-ray as radiation from X-ray might damage the unexposed film. At times sling psychometer is used in order to measure the relative humidity of the room where the film is stored. The permissible relative humidity should remain in between 30 to 50% (Whaites and Drage 2013).
The radiographic stock or the developer solution is stored in amber coloured bottle which is opaque in nature and thus light cannot pass through it. The cap of the bottle is air sealed and the bottle is stored in a cool and dry place, away from the reach of sunlight, X-rays and humidity (Whaites and Drage 2013).
The benefits of stocktaking and ordering process prevent misuse of the radiographic stock solution (Whaites and Drage 2013).
Answer 3
Digital Radiography is a type of X-ray imaging. It is process where digital X-ray sensors are employed instead of traditional photographic film. The main advantage of the digital radiography is, it is time efficient process. This is because, it helps to side-pass the step of chemical processing via digitally transferring and enhancing the images. Some disadvantages of digital radiography have an ability to magnify images which at times lead to over-interpretation of the structures leading to misleading results. Another prominent dis-advantage of the digital radiography is its high-cost maintenance and high start-up cost. Moreover images are required to be processed immediately an any delay in processing will lead to complete loss of image data. This is because, the trapped electrons return back to the lower energy state (Whaites and Drage 2013).
The digital radiography is mainly used when there is an urgent requirement in the dental radiography. This is because, it provides immediate image preview while eliminating the need to costly film processing steps (Whaites and Drage 2013).
Answer 4
OPG is a type of dental X-ray which produces panoramic view of the jaw. A specialised x-ray machine is used to generate images during OPG. The specialised x-ray machine rotates around the patient’s head while the patient remain still either is standing or sitting position. OPG is commonly used during general dental check up. However, it is also used to get general view of teeth, teeth cavities, and teeth impactions along with other tutors, infection, dislocation and sinuses (White and Pharoah 2014).
For patient preparation during OPG, I will ensure that the patient is not wearing any jeweller or eyewear and other metallic accessories or implants as this will show up in x-ray and thereby obscuring important structures (White and Pharoah 2014).
The patient position is correct in the picture because the patient she is not wearing any jewellery, or spectacles, her chin is rested over a plastic rest while she is biting gently the mouth piece is order to keep her face fixed (White and Pharoah 2014)
Boucly, A., Inglese, J.M. and Congy, P., Carestream Health Inc, 2013. Dental radiology apparatus and signal processing method used therewith. U.S. Patent 8,481,956.
Whaites, E. and Drage, N., 2013. Essentials of dental radiography and radiology. Elsevier Health Sciences.
White, S.C. and Pharoah, M.J., 2014. Oral radiology-E-Book: Principles and interpretation. Elsevier Health Sciences.

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