I need these questions answered in 200 words each.
Learners in the DNP program are required to develop a Direct Practice Improvement (DPI) Project. Describe your proposed practice site and a potential patient practice problem that you are interested in exploring for your project. Explain why this is a valid topic for your practice site. How do you believe this project will contribute to the body of knowledge in your field?
Learners are expected to demonstrate scholarly writing throughout the program in all written work (discussion forum, assignments, final project). Reflect on writing your Scholarly Writing Using Research paper and consider which of the standards of scholarly writing are most challenging for you:
Identifying appropriate evidence for support (peer-reviewed and scholarly sources).
Writing in one’s own words and properly citing authors for ideas, findings, etc.
Writing in APA style.
Describe which is most challenging for you and why. What tools or sites did you use to address the challenges? What strategies will you use to become more proficient? (This response does not require research support.)
You are expected to use the principles of scholarly writing throughout the program without further prompting. Refer to the writing resources in the GCU Library and Student Success Center for ongoing assistance.?
Refer to the “Levels of Evidence in Research” document to assist in this discussion question.
Explain why research articles that fail to meet these criteria cannot be used to provide evidence for the DPI Project. Using these criteria, find two primary research articles for your proposed patient practice problem and explain why these are considered primary research articles and why they demonstrate support for your proposed nursing practice problem. Post the links with your references.
When writing in APA style, citations and references are used to give credit to the respective authors for their ideas or work. It is also preferred that ideas or work are summarized instead of using a direct quote to present the information. Explain what the difference is between a citation and reference, how using these properly will help you avoid the consequences of plagiarizing, and why a summary is preferred. How can LopesWrite help ensure you are effectively summarizing another author’s work (versus direct quotes)?
As an example, summarize and cite information from a primary research article that demonstrates support for your proposed intervention for your selected practice problem (three or four sentences).
In your own words, define critical thinking and explain why it is an important to you as a learner proposing a quality improvement project (DPI project) for your practice site. Discuss three critical thinking skills necessary for evaluating and interpreting primary quantitative research for a DPI Project.
Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research. Explain why more quantitative research articles are required for support for the DPI Project as compared to qualitative research articles. Conduct a search in the GCU Library using the nursing databases for a primary quantitative article that provides support for your proposed intervention and briefly explain how the research provides evidence that the intervention would improve the problem at your practice site.
In your own words, describe personal and research bias and explain why bias is one of the main reasons for poor validity in research outcomes. How could a quality improvement project (DPI Project) be affected if the research used had bias? How would the site be affected? Using one of the primary research articles you selected for you PICOT-D, discuss potential bias that could have occurred and how this affects the research outcomes and ultimately the validity of the studies. Is it still viable research for your DPI Project?
Explain the difference between statistical significance and clinical significance. Provide an example for each. How do statistical significance and clinical significance apply to a quality improvement initiative, like your future DPI Project?
Review the “Literature Evaluation Table.”
Explain how the criteria on this table helps you evaluate the quality of a primary quantitative research article to determine if it will support a practice improvement project (DPI Project). Which criterion is most helpful in identifying a qualifying research article and why? How does the “Levels of Evidence in Research” chart support your search and the use of this table?
A personal worldview is based on the personal philosophy (beliefs, concepts, or ideas about the world) that one creates, ether consciously or unconsciously. These influence how one sees and interacts with the world. Reflect on the principles that have created your worldview. Were these principles developed consciously or unconsciously? Do they help or hinder? What are the main principles you use?
Based on your self-reflection, discuss two core principles from your personal philosophy and explain how they have shaped your worldview. How do these impact your ability to think critically? How does “open-mindedness” influence nursing care when caring for patients who do not share your personal philosophy or worldview? How do you think others experience you based on the actions or attitude derived from your personal philosophy/worldview? (This response does not require research support.)?
Discuss two principles your personal worldview has in common with GCU’s Christian worldview. Explain how these common principles align with the mission and vision from your practice site and how they fundamentally serve to promote patient care. (This response does not require research support.)
Reflect on your different experiences in this course, from learning new tools to having to think critically to learning how to accept feedback. Discuss which aspects were most challenging and most rewarding. Based on your experience, what doctoral strategies helped you navigate these new experiences successfully (or could help you in the future)? How could you use these strategies as a leader at a local level or within the broader health care system to advocate for change?
Sometimes topic ideas for a PICOT-D/DPI Project are intriguing, but not completely feasible for one reason or another. Based on the instructor feedback you have received, explain why you have, or do not have, a feasible topic for your PICOT-D. What changes will you need to make in order to have a feasible topic for your PICOT-D? If it is not feasible, what other topics are you considering?
Academic Writer Tutorial: Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style
View the “Academic Writer Tutorial: Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style” tutorial, located on the American Psychological Association (APA) website. You will use this resource throughout the course for assignments and discussions.
Doctor of Nursing Practice
Utilize the resources on the “Doctor of Nursing Practice” page, located on the GCU Library, to assist in completing your assignments. https://libguides.gcu.edu/DNP
The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice
Familiarize yourself with the following resource. The essentials discussed in it will be reviewed periodically throughout your DNP program.
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006). The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. http://www.aacnnursing.org/DNP/DNP-Essentials
DNP Institutional Review Board (IRB) Project Assessment Tool
Review the “DNP Institutional Review Board (IRB) Project Assessment Tool,” located in the DC Network.
You will use this resource to guide the focus of your Direct Practice Improvement (DPI) Project. The focus of the DPI Project in the GCU DNP Program is the application of strong evidence-based research to improve population/patient outcomes. As such, learners are highly encouraged to select a project topic that is anchored in either quality improvement (QI). This focus will result in the most actionable outcomes (i.e., “real-time” results). Learners need to be cautious of the scope and target population for their project or it may result in unforeseen delays in IRB
Learner Dissertation Page
All DNP learners are required to set up their own Learner Dissertation Page (LDP) housed in the DC Network. Throughout the program, learners will upload all completed assignments (including all practicum and practice immersion materials/assignments/hours) to their LDP to ensure availability for future use. This responsibility is in addition to the requirement of submitting assignments to dropbox in the LMS. This space will allow learners and the DPI committee, including faculty members, chair (assigned in DNP-955A), and the mentor/content expert, to communicate regarding the DPI Project privately. Learners are required to keep the following in their LDP under the “Portfolio” fol
The Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Issues and Clarifying Recommendations
American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015). Doctor of nursing practice: Current issues and clarifying recommendations.
This document will be reviewed periodically throughout the DNP Program.
DNP Direct Practice Improvement Project Recommendations
Online classroom discussion is a vital learning activity that enhances writing, critical thinking, and scholarly development. These skills establish the foundation for self-reflection and unbiased consideration of other perspectives that enhances the long-term development of the doctoral learner.
Successful doctoral learners engage faculty and colleagues in substantive conversations by reflecting on others’ perspectives while articulating their own views. More importantly, doctoral learners demonstrate the disposition to critically and reflectively consider new information, facts, and perspectives in the enhancement of their own knowledge and de
Doctor of Nursing Orientation Webinar
Attend the live “Doctor of Nursing Webinar.” Information on the webinar, and the registration link, are located in the DC Network under the DNP Calendar.
Doctor of Nursing Practice – Doctoral Community Getting Started Guide
Read the “Doctor of Nursing Practice – Doctoral Community Getting Started Guide,” located in the DNP PI Workspace section of the DC Network.
This resource includes essential information about developing your online presence in the program.
For additional information, the following is recommended:
Grammarly is an online writing assistance app that reviews written submissions and suggests context-specific corrections for grammar, spelling, word usage, wordiness, style, punctuation, and plagiarism. The reasoning for each suggested correction is provided, allowing users to make informed decisions about how to correct writing issues.
Grammarly can be installed as free browser extension, but Grammarly Premium requires an annual subscription. This subscription is not a GCU-required purchase, but it is strongly recommended to DNP learners.
The Doctor of Nursing Practice Essentials: A New Model for Advanced Practice Nursing
Zaccagnini, M. E., & Pechacek, J. M. (2021). The doctor of nursing practice essentials: A new model for advanced practice nursing (4th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 97811284079708
Get An Oder Like The One Below From Our Nursing Writers
Leadership consists of
various qualities, skills and aspects relating to the action of leading an
organization or a group of individuals (Ennis et al, 2013). The focal point of
the NHS is to enable cultures that provide safe, compassionate and high-quality
care (West et al, 2015). Furthermore, leadership has an impact on a number of
different aspects such as mortality levels, patient satisfaction, staff
well-being, financial performance and generally, the quality of care (West et
al, 2015). The Francis report discussed the importance of distributed
leadership, whereby all healthcare professionals are enabled to think freely,
make decisions and take control themselves. It leads to the provision of
high-quality care (Francis, 2013). This piece of work will assess effective
leadership and why it is a necessity within nursing practice.
Ennis et al (2013) implemented
a study in order to assess the communication characteristics needed for good
leadership within nursing. Interviews were carried out, outlining how effective
communication is key in order to provide high quality care, develop as a
professional and to harbor working relationships (Ennis et al, 2013). The study
produced the following themes: choice of language, listening skills, relevance,
non-verbal communication and relationships. Participants outlined that good
leaders have the knowledge to choose the type of language used and can adapt it
to any scenario that they are faced with. In addition, they suggest that an
effective leader considers the outcome and consequence of each conversation
(for example, whether further support was needed) (Ennis et al, 2013). When
leadership is successful, it enables excellence and ethical and
patient-centered care (Ennis et al, 2013).
Furthermore, it was
noted that good leaders needed to be able to listen, be affable and have
patience (Ennis et al, 2013). One participant outlined that listening should be
first and foremost, valuing its importance and showing great interest in what
the patient has to say (Ennis et al, 2013). Respondents noted the need for
effective communication across all aspects of nursing; with junior staff,
between healthcare professions and when directly caring (Ennis et al, 2013).
Good clinical leaders need to be able to communicate to a high level, adapting
to enable all patients to understand, noting body language, non-verbal cues and
avoiding medically complex terms as much as possible (Ennis et al, 2013). The
study notes the link between effective communication and the amount of
influence that leader has, the team’s performance and their development of
staff member relations (Ennis et al, 2013). Guidelines by NICE also emphasize
the importance of effective communication to enable high quality care (NICE,
2016). Non-verbal communication is also key; effective leaders need to note
their body language and level of eye contact, assessing not only their own
non-verbal cues, but also those of the patient or fellow professional (Ennis et
al, 2013). This will enable them to judge the scenario and to foresee any
issues that may arise (Ennis et al, 2013). Within the study by Ennis et al,
(2013) respondents outlined that good leaders had excellent people skills,
building a good rapport with everyone. To do so, respect and treating each
person as an individual is key (Ennis et al, 2013). It is also vital to ensure
that no judgements are made and that support is offered when needed (Ennis et
al, 2013). Effective leaderships can only be implemented when these areas are
adhered to, building work relationships and providing high quality,
patient-centered care (Ennis et al, 2013).
Emotional intellect is
a key aspect to adhere to when managing situations and caring for patients
(Powell et al, 2015). Controlling emotions and self-awareness are both vital
components of emotional intellect (Powell et al, 2015). Doing so decreases the
risk of burnout and ensures that patients are receiving high quality care
(Powell et al, 2015). In addition, being aware of one’s emotions enables a
collaboration that is needed to meet the needs of individuals within the
complex and increasingly technical NHS system (Powell et al, 2015).
The qualities of a leader
The main traits of a
good leader were assessed by Yukl (2013). They consist of a high level of
energy, stress coping mechanisms, confidence, control, maturity, integrity, as
well as being a high achiever, with low needs for affiliation. Nursing leaders
need to be empowering, promote independence, encourage a critical and effective
work environment and remain positive (Jukes, 2013). They should enable fellow
healthcare professionals to build resilience, enabling them to make their own
decisions yet providing protection when needed (Jukes, 2013). In order to
achieve structural change for the provision of high-quality care, the following
should be adhered to: promoting inclusive team work, maintaining trust, seeking
contribution, using personal authenticity, valuing relationships, enabling
learning and challenging any issues that arise (Cleary et al, 2011). Patients
need support and care which cannot be carried out without effective leadership
(Cleary et al, 2011). If a nurse does not show effective leadership skills,
they often retreat towards more traditional methods of behavior (more
documentation and relying on medicine), instead of promoting patient-centered
care (Jukes, 2013). Furthermore, leaders need to support any professionals that
they are responsible for in following the nursing and midwifery code at all
times (Nursing and Midwifery Code, 2015: 18).
The qualities of a manager
Managers oversee a
certain area, supervising fellow staff and ensuring that patient care is
upheld, in addition to administrative aspects (Jukes, 2013). Concerns are
addressed through their specialized nursing experience, good communication and
the ability to take the lead (Jukes, 2013). Good communication is key when
assessing any risks, managing plans, delegating work and ensuring the effective
and safe provision of resources (Jukes, 2013). Delegating work is an integral
part of effectively leading, encouraging active learning, whilst freeing up
more time for aspects that cannot be delegated (Weir-Hughes, 2011). Delegation
is a necessity, especially when staff numbers reduce and pressures rise
(Griffin, 2016). Managers also demonstrate excellent leadership skills by
improving nurse confidence and upholding morale (Timmins, 2011). They need to
ensure that staff are communicating effectively, in order to provide high
quality, safe care (Timmins, 2011). This can be carried out by implementing an
open leadership style, listening to the nurses and involving the team when
making decision (Timmins, 2011). Gilmartin and D’Aunno (2007) outline how nurses prefer managers who are
emotionally intelligent, facilitate change and who actively participate.
Further stating that this leads to cohesion, a sense of empowerment and reduces
stress and burnout (Gilmartin and D’Aunno,
2007). Management and leadership can only be improved by adhering to the
following: ensuring a good set of qualities and knowledge, a supportive environment,
an adequate number of managers and ensuring rewards or acknowledgement for good
practice (World Health Organization, 2007).
can lead to the unsafe provision of care (Nicolson et al, 2011). This was portrayed
during the 1990s, in which nurse Beverly Allitt
murdered children by injecting them with insulin. She was not supervised and
the deaths were not challenged by management (Nicolson et al, 2011). More
recently, the investigation into the Airedale NHS trust found nurse Anne
Grigg-Booth to be providing dangerous care. Many patients died under her care,
which was noted as an abundance of failures in which dangerous actions were not
acknowledged by management (Nicolson et al, 2011). Within the Mid Staffordshire
Foundation Trust, a lack of leadership and supervision detrimentally impacted
upon the lives of many, with high mortality rates (Nicolson et al, 2011). The
Francis Report identified various issues such as, call bells not being
answered, patients lying in their own urine and left without water or food
(Francis, 2013). Saving money was a priority and management preferred to meet
targets than deal with individual needs and thus leadership was poor (Nicolson
et al, 2011). Ineffective management has not only led to unsafe care but cost
more than £16m in legal fees and implementation costs (Calkin, 2013).
leadership encourages nurses to provide a high level of care by making
influential changes (Cleary et al, 2011). It involves the following actions:
building trust with fellow healthcare professionals, showing integrity,
inspiring team members, offering intellectual inspiration, adhering to the
needs of each individual and providing support (Malloy and Penprase,
2010). With this leadership style, professionals provide clear aims and a
pathway for their work, prioritising mutual respect,
working together, gaining nurse autonomy and upholding staff morale (Cleary et
al, 2011). Doing so prevents burnout, improves job satisfaction and a sense of
commitment (Cleary et al, 2011). Transformational leadership can be contrasted
with the transactional style in which leaders focus upon meeting targets (it is
not creative, reflective and prevents emotional connection) (Cleary et al,
Support for the transformational leadership
A study was
implemented by Malloy and Penprase (2010) on 122
nurses in order to assess their supervisor’s leadership style. The following
leadership styles were analysed: transactional,
transformational, exceptional-active, exceptional-passive and laissez-faire
(Molloy and Penprase, 2010). The study concluded that
aspects of transformational leadership were connected with 17 out of 37 areas
within the working environment, as calculated by the Copenhagen Psychosocial
questionnaire (Molly and Penprase, 2010). Leaders
implementing the transactional style also made positive contributions, but
fewer than that of a transformational style (Molly and Penprase,
2010). In addition, the laissez-faire, exceptional-passive and
exceptional-active styles all negatively impacted the nursing environment
(Molly and Penprase, 2010). Corrigan et al (2002)
carried out a mental health study, consisting of 236 leaders who had
responsibility for 620 staff members. Leaders who noted themselves as high on
the transactional style, had staff outlining low transformational scores. In
comparison, leaders who noted high levels of inspirational and stimulatory
aspects were likely to have staff who felt that their style was transformative
(Corrigan et al, 2002). Lastly, staff members who stated that their leader has
a transformational style experienced less burnout, a better working environment
and support, adhering to conclusions by Malloy and Penprase
(2010). In a time of uncertainty, healthcare budget cuts, policy changes and
financial strain, transformational leadership is key (Cleary et al, 2011). It
encourages staff to treat patients with respect and dignity, promoting patient-centred care and upholding values (Cleary et al, 2011).
Many argue however, that there needs to be more evidence into whether
transformational leaderships enable better care, improved quality of life and
patient satisfaction (Holm and Severinsson, 2010).
NHS leadership review
published findings in order to analyze leadership within the NHS (Department of
Health, 2015). It noted three main areas of concern: a lack of vision, poor
management and leadership and the need for clear pathways in regards to NHS
management careers (Department of Health, 2015). The key recommendations
include: refreshing the NHS graduate scheme, the transfer of NHS leadership
Academy to Health Education England as those responsible for training and
introducing a minimum term on some senior management contracts. In addition,
managers should be supported and have their knowledge updated regularly in
order to prevent ‘skill fade’ (Department of Health, 2015: 53). The report
concluded that, ‘the NHS as a whole, lacks a clear, consistent, view of what
‘good’ or ‘best’ leadership looks like’ (Department of Health, 2015: 20). The
recommendations focus upon training, management, support, performance
management and bureaucracy (Department of Health, 2015).
To conclude, effective
leadership is necessary in order to provide a high level of safe care. It leads
to patient-centered care, excellent communication skills and high quality care.
Leaders need to communication well, have emotional intelligence, distribute
work and implement a transformational style. Whereas poor leadership can lead
to death or severe harm, as took place in the independent investigation into
the Airedale NHS trust. Ineffective leadership was also a main aspect of why
the detrimental acts of Anne Grigg-Booth went undetected by managers (Nicolson
et al, 2011). To emphasise, leadership is a key area
of the NHS and so it is vitally important to ensure that behaviours,
communication skills, qualities, skills, leadership styles and strategies are
focused upon to improve (West et al, 2015). Without doing so, the lives of many
will be affected.