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Effect Of Piped Music On Anxiety

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Effect Of Piped Music On Anxiety

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Effect Of Piped Music On Anxiety

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Question:
Discuss about the Effect of piped music on anxiety.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction
The purpose of this research is to highlight the fact that whether any kind of piped music can help to fight anxiety disorder of the patients or it does not. In this research, the research scholar presents detailed study, which he conducted on the patients of a psychotherapist who asked him to conduct a social research on this issue on her patients waiting for consultation in the reception hall. It has been suggested from the ages that listening to music can positively impact on the psychological state of people as it is believed that the sound of piped music can effectively reduce the stress factors (Hsu, Chen & Hsiep, 2016). As the psychotherapist has invited the research scholar to conduct a study in her reception hall, the researcher decided to study approximately 25 patients of the therapist and they will be exposed to a standard stress test after conditioning their mind with some sort of piped music for half an hour. In this paper, various relevant literature and theories will be studied and then relevant stress tests will be performed. Primary data will be collected and analyzed in order to disclose the results.
Literature review and hypothesis
It has been widely believed that light soothing music, especially music of piped instruments can significantly help to reduce any kind of stress and the social research conducted by the research scholar in the reception of a psychotherapist is to justify the reliability of this idea (Gan, Lim & Haw, 2016). This literature provides a limited number of investigations done by the researcher and provides a hypothesis that is yet to be proved. As the sample size is smaller and the patients of the psychotherapists come with various types of psychological disorders, the results of the test might have some shortcomings. When the researcher exposed 25 male and female patients to the stress test after conditioning their brain with soft piped music for more than half an hour, the salivary cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, subjective anxiety and perception of stress is assessed and recorded for the research work. Later, the researcher again asked the respondents to go through the stress test without prior listening to any piped music or any kinds of music. It has been seen that the new test results did not significantly vary from the results which were taken earlier after conditioning the patients with the piped music. For very few of the patients the test results changed in a significant manner (Hole et al., 2015). Apart from the stress test, the research scholar took interview of the patients and also distributed a questionnaire to them so that they can give their views and that would help the researcher to come to a conclusion. According to Chang (2015), it can be said that the root of the anxiety disorder of the patients are the determining factors whether the music of piped instrument can lower the stress factors or not. Thus it can be said that effectiveness off the piped music in reducing stress is strictly case specific and no one can draw a proper conclusion with a compact result for this case. It is widely known that music can help to initiate the multitude of cognitive process of the brain and also can influence processes which are strictly stress related. On the other hand, according to Gallego and García (2017), it is also believed that listening to piped music can majorly influence the cognitive processes which are related to stress and the previous stress test taken by the researcher concluded that piped music can at times lowers the perceived stress and anxiety which are related to anxiety and stress (Simavli et al., 2014). In this regard, it can be said that listening to piped music somehow alters the level of relaxation in the minds of the respondents under the stressful context. It is also seen that listening to any kind relaxing soothing of music can o some extent trigger the level of activity of the parts of brain which takes active parts in modulating the level of anxiety in the human brain. It can also be said that the inadequacy of the study in this context and the lack of respondents can reduce the   accuracy of the research work and to determine the effects of piped music on the SAA levels or on the stress-induced cortisols (Gan, Lim & Haw, 2016). In this particular context it can be said that the effectiveness of the research is limited as the research work is done under laboratory like environment and the sample size is significantly small.
 
Research questions
RQ 1. Does listening to piped music reduce the level of anxiety?
RQ2. Does listening to piped music helps people to relax when they are facing any type of anxiety?
Research hypothesis
RH 1. Sound of piped music can reduce stress level of some of the individuals who are suffering    from minor psychological disorders.
 RH 0. Listening to piped music would not impact on the anxiety disorder of the respondents.
Methodology
Philosophy of the research
Positivism, post positivism, realism and interpretivism are the frequently used research philosophies. The realism philosophy induces the researcher to get involved with the incessant process of the research though at times it is not at all possible to get the results. Positivism philosophy can help to make the scientific observations and helps to contact the analyzed statistical data. In this regard, only the process that is scientific can properly utilize this philosophy of positivism (Lewis, 2015).
For this particular social research the research scholar has chosen post positivism philosophy to study the existing theories regarding the issue and also to study the background knowledge. It can be said that the difficulties in the data collection method makes adopting the philosophy of positivism difficult in research works. The interpretivism philosophy helps to make significant observation by studying the viewpoint of the respondents that are related to the social research. In this way, the research scholar can identify the biases’ effects and this particular philosophy focuses on the quantitative along with the qualitative methods.
 
Design of the research
Some of the widely known or adopted research designs are exploratory, explanatory and descriptive type of designs. The explanatory design helps to realize the causes of occurrences regarding any specific phenomenon with accordance to the research topic along with predicting the future incidence of any likewise form of the phenomenon (Choy, 2014). The explanatory design of research takes in the ways that interrelate and often come together. Exploratory design of research works helps to adopt the best designs of researches and also to adopt the accurate methods for data collection and to choose the subjects. The major focus of the exploratory design of research would be on the constructing the rationale and on the problems and clarifications of the research statement along with the various concepts to examine the concepts related to the research work. On the other hand, the design of descriptive research can be stated as a combination of explanatory and exploratory research designs (Lewis, 2015). The descriptive types of researches can surly be defined as a fact that tries to establish, recognize or describe what is, while the research efforts which are analytical establishes why it has been chosen.
For this particular social research the researcher has adopted the descriptive type of research as it is the combination of the advantages of two research designs and to get accurate result, the researcher has chosen the descriptive design. The chief purpose of choosing descriptive design of research is to cast light on the contemporary issues regarding the method of data collection that enables them to describe the circumstances without employing the method (Gast & Ledford, 2014).The descriptive types of research works cannot take into account the specific situation causing factors.
Approach of the research
Inductive and deductive are the two mostly adopted research approaches. The deductive approach is dependent on the explanation of the researcher and the inductive approach is based on the formulation of new ideas along with the existing theories (Lewis, 2015). In the deductive approach the focus is on exploring new concepts or viewing previously published ideas with a new perspective. On the other hand, in the inductive approach the focus is on the quantitative data analysis and there is no presence of set rules for this. In this case, the researcher has chosen inductive approach for the research work as it would facilitate the researcher to supply accurate evidence regarding the result of the research work.
 
Strategy of the research
The research scholar will be interviewing 25 patients of the psychotherapist and also use questionnaire and conduct a stress test to get the outcome. Apart from that the researcher will depend on the various secondary data gathered from the medical journals, magazines and government websites.
Target population
The patients of the psychotherapist are the targeted respondents. As the psychotherapist’s patients are already suffering from psychological disorder regarding stress and various other issues; thus they can be perfect target population for conducting the research work.
Sample size
The sample size would be 25 as the target population will be the patients of the psychotherapist and there will not be enough scope to collect data from more respondents.
 
Process of data collection
The data collection processes are of two types; one is primary and the other one is secondary type of data collection. The primary type of data collection is done over face to face interviews with the respondents or by providing them with questionnaires and making surveys on a particular topic. On the other hand, as per Flick (2015), the secondary data can be gathered either from government websites, or from reputed magazines, books and journals. For this research work, the researcher has opted for primary type of data collection where he will be taking interview and also give the respondents a questionnaire to get to know their view points.
Data analysis
There are two basic types of data analysis one is qualitative and the other one is quantitative analysis. Qualitative data analysis can be seen as the range of procedures so that the research scholar can collect and understand the interpretations of the situations and the responses of the target population. On the other hand, quantitative data analysis is a systematic approach to investigate during the time of collection of numerical data. Quantitative analysis is to get the results; a quantitative data analysis should be done to analyze the gathered data by the researcher.
Research rigour and anticipated limitations
There are some limitations in this particular social research conducted by the scholar as the sample size is smaller. The researcher had to perform the tests and he collected data from the patients of the psychotherapist and he had to use the reception hall as a laboratory. Apart from that each individuals have different types of psychological problems and thus music cannot impact on every human minds in the same way. Naturally thus there are some limitations of this types of social research.
 
Bibliography
Bensimon, M., Einat, T., & Gilboa, A. (2015). The impact of relaxing music on prisoners’ levels of anxiety and anger. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 59(4), 406-423.
Chang, Y. S., Chu, H., Yang, C. Y., Tsai, J. C., Chung, M. H., Liao, Y. M., … & Chou, K. R. (2015). The efficacy of music therapy for people with dementia: a meta?analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of clinical nursing, 24(23-24), 3425-3440.
Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.
Finch, K., & Moscovitch, D. A. (2016). Imagery-Based Interventions for Music Performance Anxiety. Medical problems of performing artists, 31(4), 222-231.
Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Gallego, M. G., & García, J. G. (2017). Music therapy and Alzheimer’s disease: Cognitive, psychological, and behavioural effects. Neurología (English Edition), 32(5), 300-308.
Gan, S. K. E., Lim, K. M. J., & Haw, Y. X. (2016). The relaxation effects of stimulative and sedative music on mathematics anxiety: A perception to physiology model. Psychology of Music, 44(4), 730-741.
Gast, D. L., & Ledford, J. R. (Eds.). (2014). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Routledge.
Gravetter, F.J., & Forzano, L.B. (2016) Research Methods for Behavioral Sciences (5th Edition.)
Hole, J., Hirsch, M., Ball, E., & Meads, C. (2015). Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 386(10004), 1659-1671.
Hsu, K. C., Chen, L. F., & Hsiep, P. H. (2016). Effect of music intervention on burn patients’ pain and anxiety during dressing changes. burns, 42(8), 1789-1796.
Jiang, J., Rickson, D., & Jiang, C. (2016). The mechanism of music for reducing psychological stress: Music preference as a mediator. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 48, 62-68.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.
Neuman, W. L., & Robson, K. (2014). Basics of social research. Pearson Canada.
Särkämö, T., Laitinen, S., Numminen, A., Kurki, M., Johnson, J. K., & Rantanen, P. (2016). Clinical and demographic factors associated with the cognitive and emotional efficacy of regular musical activities in dementia. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 49(3), 767-781.
Simavli, S., Gumus, I., Kaygusuz, I., Yildirim, M., Usluogullari, B., & Kafali, H. (2014). Effect of music on labor pain relief, anxiety level and postpartum analgesic requirement: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation, 78(4), 244-250.
Tan, F., Tengah, A., Nee, L. Y., & Fredericks, S. (2014). A study of the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise among healthy students. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 20(2), 114-117.
Thoma, M. V., Zemp, M., Kreienbühl, L., Hofer, D., Schmidlin, P. R., Attin, T., … & Nater, U. M. (2015). Effects of music listening on pre-treatment anxiety and stress levels in a dental hygiene recall population. International journal of behavioral medicine, 22(4), 498-505.
Yaman Akta?, Y., & Karabulut, N. (2016). The effects of music therapy in endotracheal suctioning of mechanically ventilated patients. Nursing in critical care, 21(1), 44-52.
Zarza Alzugaray, F. J., Hernández, S. O., López, O. C., & Gil, B. M. (2016). Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version. Psychology of Music, 44(3), 340-352.

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