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European Journal Of Applied Physiology

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European Journal Of Applied Physiology

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Coaching is a form of development in which a coach supports a learner with various techniques and approaches that would be of help in achieving both professional and personal goals. For this reason, the coach has to provide training, guidance, and advice to facilitate such factors. Consequently, coaching may refer to informal relationships that exist between two people (Ali et al., 2011). Therefore, it is evident that the coach needs to have more expertise and experience to ensure proper and adequate guidance and advice as the learner gets the skills therein. The most identifiable type of coaching is professional coaching. It uses various communication skills such as listening and questioning, to enable the client or the learner to adopt perspectives, that would help them to discover different approaches and achieve their sports goals and objectives (Bergun et al., 2009).
 More to that, sports encourage community spirit as it gives players as well as spectators, a sense of purpose. Consequently, the game teaches a young person’s core competencies in life, as it improves both physical and physiological health of the participants. With such positivity margin, sports involve various coaching activities and action to equip the participants with techniques and tactics that will enable them to participate effectively and efficiently (Chung et al., 2010). Such factors are achievable through expert tutoring, motivation, and criticism from supporters who are the coaches in this case. The sports coaches ensure that the learner eliminates all the factors that might reduce their chances of succeeding. For this reason, therefore, the paper seeks to provide or rather present a qualitative analysis with various cue that a coach uses, when assessing an execution in dealing with badminton drop shot. Moreover, it will elaborate on the methods employed in the process of making a qualitative analysis based on the badminton drop shot action thus will help create light into the various techniques used in badminton coaching, the benefits of having a coach for the sport and more so, the realization that someone who has experience in the sport is able to pass on techniques that help the player achieve success. Furthermore, a particular intervention will be illustrated to modify the technique and offer a rationale based on the response provided. Finally, the paper will indicate a sample coaching plan elaborating the key importance to professional coaching.
Badminton drop shot
Drop shot forms part of the aggressive badminton shots. The drop shot is finest used when the shuttle is directing towards you during the first partial of the court. For the player to achieve this technique, the player needs to hit the shuttlecock downhill over the net, while heading towards the adversary’s forecourt (Coleman, 2007). The primary objective of this technique is to ensure that the player goes over the net. For this reason, the player uses a little force to help in pushing the shuttle over the net. Nevertheless, it is a technique or rather an action taught by the coach but requires many strategies when the opponent is closer to the backcourt while anticipating the stroke (Escamilla et al., 2008). While at the midcourt, the player can try sharing the shuttlecock for it to bounce agreeably over the net. If the challenger is in the backcourt, automatically, the shot will make the antagonist to rush towards the birdie for a shot. According to coaches’ reports, the closer the birdie falls next to the net, the harder it is to reappearance. Nevertheless, there is more chance for the player as in most cases; it may not cross the net as expected.
However, for drop shots to be effective on the playing ground, it needs to be deceptive. If the shots are easy to predict, them the opponent will be in a position to anticipate the right direction that would enable him to get into position quickly, hence returning the shots with ease. For this reason, deception is vital to keep the opponent guessing the direction of the shots (Kwon, 2009). For this reason, the opponent will have little time for him to formulate and respond when the track is only exposed at the last instant. Drop shots exist in various variations. However, they hinge on utilizing wrist movements. Consequently, the principal objective of the badminton drop shot is to trick the opponent to believe that the player is going to implement a clear smash hence luring the opponents out of position with an idea of getting to the badminton court.
The sports coach executes drop shot technique by use of the forehand as well as backhand action with either a slow or a fast drop shot. With a slow shot, the shuttle lands at the opponent’s frontcourt area. The point of contact is just above the racket shoulder. Execution occurs through the intent of shifting the opponent to the frontcourt allow the other partner to take advantage of their opponent’s weak returns (Reep & Benjamin, 2008). On the contrary, a quick drop causes the shuttle to land in the midcourt rather than in the frontcourt in the case of slow short. For this reason, the shot gets the opponent off balance with minimal time to respond.
Cues for Badminton Drop Shots
The coach different execution signals for forehand overhand drop and the backhand overhand.

Cue for Forehand drop shot

Racket back to side
Cock the wrist
Extend the arm
Face the racket upwards
Target the middle of the court in a bright and open area

Cues for Overhand drop shot

Get under the shuttlecock
Make the racket to face towards the sky
Ensure that you contact at the highest point
Snap the wrist
The player targets at the backcourt in an open area

Cues for Backhand drop shot

Rotate the racket to be in a slanting position
Turn the feet and shoulders in an opposite direction
Snap the wrist
Target the midcourt in an open area

[Most players have indicated that drop shots are advantageous in various ways. The techniques throw the opponent completely off guard with no best means of returning the shuttles (Miller & Bartlett, 2016). However, if the opponent returns the shuttle, it is most probable that the performance will be weak since they had minimal time to respond. For this reason, one gain control over the game as the opponent feels defeated.]
Methods of making qualitative analysis for badminton drop shot

Kinematic analysis

Kinematic analysis refers to the study that involves the movement of the body, limb as well as joints. Kinematic analysis generates a non-invasive process of collecting objective data on a limb and joint motion (Reilly & Thomas, 2016). The segment, as well as angular velocities, are obtained using anybody modeling system. Using the kinematic analysis, joint and the sector movements leads to various challenges towards thorax lateral flexion, thorax longitudinal rotation, wrist abduction and the relative movements that work between the racket and the hand (Sakurai et al., 2013). Furthermore, kinematic analysis deals with the description as well as measurements about the human body. Use of kinematic analysis in the qualitative analysis of the badminton drop shot investigates an in-depth understanding based on the motion as well as movement patterns presented while employing drop shot technique in the field.
The human body comprises of a motorized scheme with a large number of grades of liberty and various isolated keys of presentation in the field (Yamanaka et al., 2013). Badminton is one of the most famous sports. The direction of the shot, as well as the ball carrying distance, are determined through club head trajectory between the impact position and the impact conditions about club head velocity (Sørensen et al., 2010). For this reason, over the last four decades, the qualitative analysis of the badminton drop shot are critically analyzed using kinematic analysis. This is a quantitative method whereby the pendulum model and applications are applicable in this case due to swinging motion of the shuttlecock. Using kinematic analysis, the coach gets to understand the position at which the player will move the parts of the body simultaneously to achieve the required results or outcome.
Three-dimension analysis is used for movements, in measuring the player movement in terms of time taken from each section from center of gravity, joint angel and the speed of the player movement. Top players are faster in time than the amateurs and they tend to move more in the x and z axis. However, amateurs have more angle inclination and have larger angles on the shoulder joints in the first phase whereas top players third phase, as they have more racket speed. The velocity if the throw is of great importance for the overarm movements since badminton involves much of such movements. For this reason, the maximal isometric force influences the velocity more positively. For the player to attain the best results, it is essential for the player to employ the drop shot technique with the most appropriate speed (Takahashi et al., 2010). The coach needs to keep in mind some basic ideas through kinematic analysis such as angular width as well as accelerated segment in addition to velocity. It is of importance as drop shot involves various mechanisms.

Notational analysis

In modern sport, the notational analysis is of importance for recording actions as well as positions of players in a more competitive situation. The notational analysis also refers to the systematic study of communication of accurate data based on coaching as well as broadcasting purposes. Involving notational analysis, in qualitative analysis enables the coach to avoid misperceptions. In so doing, it gets easier for the coach to identify facts for the badminton drop shot technique. Furthermore, notational analysis involves scientifically based methods successfully used in another sports research (Tiryaki et al., 2007). The analysis process produces tables and data with the incorporation of statistical tests of significance. However, most of the coaches who attempt to adopt the analysis procedure in the badminton drop shot technique tend to get confused by the precise forms of communications. In most cases, therefore, notational analysis involves four primary studies during the study of badminton drop shot technique. A team of coaches or a coach uses badminton software like Sage game manager to analyse a previous played game. They study the shots in terms of serves, lobs, smash, and return. They can find smashes to be better than dropshots depending on the variables and coefficient used. These variables need to have higher correlations in quantitative and lower in qualitative variables.  They are used to analyze and evaluate player time, player type and position and the length and quantity of shots.  (Van den Tillaar & Ettema, 2014). These purposes include analysis of movement, tactical evaluation, technical evaluation as well as statistical compilations. All these aspects form part of the resources used in the notational analysis of the sport. For this reason, the players and coaches are educated on ways of improving performance levels through proper planning practices related to the reports above.

Intervention measures

Badminton smash is a response action for drop shot badminton. Badminton Smash refers to the most efficient among all other badminton shots. Smash can be played both on forehand ad backhand sides. Crash involves a ball hit with speed and power downwards towards the opponent’s court. Smash also includes a steep angle of the shuttle trajectory causing resistance for the opponent to retrieve (Wooster & Hughes, 2011). In this case, the optimal thumping zone is situated in the dominant area of the racket. With an idea of generating more power as well as creating a steeper angle for the shot, the player jumps and smashes the shuttle. For this reason, badminton smash necessitates a lot of vigor. The best rackets for achieving a perfect smash include Yonex Voltric 80 E-Tune and Voltric Z force 2 amongst others. To perform the perfect smash, the back-hand technique is adopted. It is much faster in rendering of shots and catches the opponent off balance.
To perform a backhand smash

Adopt a backhand grip
Position your face towards the net
Shift the weight of the racket floor and lift your arm with your forearm parallel to the floor.
Keep the racket arm close to the body and hold the racket pointing down.
Similar to the forehand smash, hit the shuttle at the highest point of contact and wrist down the arm more to generate more power.
This method is best preferred as there is no follow through needed. By incorporating the fast drop method, the shuttle lands in the front of the opponents mid court area and there is lower trajectory. This means the opponent has less time to respond.

Sample coaching plan for the intervention
The coaching plan for the smash badminton includes the forehand smash as well as the backhand smash.

Forehand Smash

The forehand smash is much alike to the act of flinging a sphere. Therefore, the coach guides the players on ball playing before indulging into badminton. The coach illustrates the following pointers for effective forehand smash game.

The player has to turn the body and stand in a sideway posture to the net with a non-racket shoulder facing the net.
Ensure that the weight is on the rear foot
Curve the elbow and latch the wrist for proper preparation of swinging forward
Raise the non-racket a bit higher while pointing at the racket to recover effectiveness and equilibrium as well
Interaction the shuttle at a height greater than the body by intense throwing action with the elbow straight
Snap the wrist downwards at the point of impression to give the shuttle additional control and a greater angle while targeting the challenger’s court
Shadow with our racket while shifting the weight from the rear to the front foot and move back and take the base position

Backhand smash

Ensure to turn your body, so that the back is fronting the net
Guide and shift the weight towards the racket foot
Lift the arm from the shoulder while ensuring that the forearm is parallel to the floor
Hold the racket crossways the body with the racket facing down
Hit the shuttle from a higher point of interaction from the front of the body
Flick the wrist down mightily at the shuttle
Move back and take your base position

Ali, A.R.A.Z. and Farrally, M., 2011. A computer-video added time motion analysis technique for match analysis. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31(1), pp. 82-88.
Bergün, M., Measure, A., Tuncay, Ç., Aydin, Ö. and Çigdem, B., 2009. 3D kinematic analysis of overarm movements for different sports. Kines, 41, pp.105-111.
Chung, C.S., Choi, K.J. and Shin, I.S., 2010. Three-dimensional kinematics of the striking arm during the volleyball spike. Korean J Sports Sci, 2, pp. 124-151.
Coleman, S., 2007. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE VOLLEYBALL JUMP SERVE. In ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive (Vol. 1, No. 1).
Escamilla, R.F., Fleisig, G.S., Barrentine, S.W., Zheng, N., and Andrews, J.R., 2008. Kinematic comparisons of throwing different types of baseball pitches. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 14(1), pp.1-23.
Kwon, Y.H., 2009, August. Kinematic analysis of sports movements: golf swing plane analysis. In ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive (Vol. 1, No. 1).
Miller, S. and Bartlett, R., 2016. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing the position. Journal of sports sciences, 14(3), pp. 243-253.
Reep, C. and Benjamin, B., 2008. Skill and chance in association football. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General), 131(4), pp. 581-585.
Reilly, T. and Thomas, V., 2016. A motion analysis of work-rate in different positional roles in professional football match play. Journal of human movement studies, 2(2), pp. 87-97.
Sakurai, S., Ikegami, Y., Okamoto, A., Yabe, K. and Toyoshima, S., 2013. A three-dimensional cinematographic analysis of upper limb movement during fastball and curveball baseball pitches. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 9(1), pp. 47-65.
Sørensen, K., de Zee, M. and Rasmussen, J., 2010. A biomechanical analysis of precise strokes in badminton executed by youth players of different skill levels. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Aalborg University, Aalborg.
Takahashi, K., Ae, M., Fujii, N., Shimada, K. and Ozaki, T., 2010. The increase in the ball velocity and the forces exerted on the ball by the fingers of the hand. Jap J Biomech in Sports and Exer, 4, pp. 116-124.
Tiryaki, G., Cicek, S., Erdogan, A.T., Kay, F., Atalay, A.T. and Tuncel, F., 2007. The analysis of the offensive patterns of the Switzerland soccer team in the World Cup 1994. M. Hughes, Notational Analysis of Sport I and II, pp. 91-98.
Van den Tillaar, R. and Ettema, G., 2014. Effect of body size and gender in overarm throwing performance. European journal of applied physiology, 91(4), pp. 413-418.
Wooster, B., and Hughes, M., 2011. Playing patterns ensuing from the distribution of goalkeepers in elite association football. Pass. Com, p

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