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Evidence Table Worksheet Assignment

Evidence Table Worksheet Assignment
Evidence Table Worksheet

PICOT Question:


Will you have a comparison group or will subjects be their own controls?
Is a ‘time’ appropriate with your question—why or why not?

II.   Evidence Synthesis

(database) ex: Cochran
Study #1
Study #2
Study #3
Study #4
Study #5

(p) Population

(i) Intervention

(c) Comparison

(o) Outcome

(t) time


Evaluation Table


Sample size: Adequate?
Major Variables: 
Independent Dependent
Study findings: Strengths and weaknesses
Level of evidence
Evidence Synthesis

Evidence Table Worksheet Assignment PAPER INFORMATION
Why was the study done?
The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and associated risks factors of hypertension. The study also aimed at estimating awareness, treatment and control measures among the study subjects (Singh, Shankar & Singh, 2017).
What is the sample size?
The simple random sampling strategy will be used to select the participants for this study. The realization that a small sample of 30 will be utilized calls for a sampling technique which will help in culling out a sample from the whole population (Thompson, 2012).  With this form of sampling, all the participants carry an equal chance of being selected thus resulting in generalized results due to limited chances of biases occurring.
Are the instruments of the variable in the study clearly defined and reliable?
The instruments of the variable in the study were well defined and reliable. The variables included tobacco and alcohol consumption among participants, level of education, the social economic status, overweight, and abdominal obesity. The variables were the risk factors associated with hypertension in both males and females (Singh, Shankar & Singh, 2017). The variables were reliable because they helped in establishing a causal relationship.
How was the data analyzed?
Before data was analyzed, the authors first did data processing. The raw information obtained from the surveys was entered in a database using the SPSS program. First data was analyzed to show hypertension prevalence among males and females separately. The descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation were calculated for the continuous variables, percentages, and frequencies to summarize the qualitative data. Further, other statistical tests such as Chi-square and ANOVA were applied to show an association. Importantly, logistic regression was also applied to identify the risk factors for hypertension among males and female (Singh, Shankar, & Singh, 2017). Also, a significance level of about 0.05 was applied.
Were there unusual events during the study?
During the study, the authors recorded unusual events whereby individuals who did not give response due to mental or serious physical illness and whom their anthropometry measurements could not be performed were excluded from the study. Further, instead of using random sampling, the study utilized multistage sampling. Sampling was done in stages whereby in the first stage out of the total 90 wards, only five wards were selected. In the five wards selected, the households were further selected using probability proportional and random sampling(Singh, Shankar, & Singh, 2017). In the third stage, only one member of the target age group was interviewed. The unusual thing that happened during sampling is using more than three sampling techniques at the same time. Further, the study used cross-sectional design which restricted examining causal associations.
How do the results fit in with previous research in this area?
Previous research show risk factors associated with hypertension include obesity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, overweight and educational level (Shen, Chanq, & Zhang et al, 2017). Besides, studies have shown that interventions such as physical activity and reduction in alcohol and tobacco use reduce risks of hypertension (Yang, Yan & Tang et al, 2013). From this study, Singh S, Shankar and Singh found out that increased fruits and vegetable consumption, weight management, increased physical activity and reduction in alcohol and tobacco use reduce the risk of hypertension (Singh, Shankar & Singh, 2017). The study also found that tobacco use, alcohol use, occupation, marital status, education, socioeconomic status, and abdominal obesity were associated with hypertension. Various studies that have been done in the same area have shown the same risk factors associated with hypertension identified in this study. That means the results of this study fit in with the previous research done in this area.
What are the implications for the research for clinical practice?
The implication for the clinical practice is that the study emphasizes the prevalence and risks associated with hypertension. Having detected the risks associated with hypertension, it will enable healthcare providers and lawmakers to implement policies towards reducing the prevalence of hypertension in the future. Singh S, Shankar and Singh pointed out some of the interventions that can be applied in risk reduction. Due to interventions factors highlighted, there is a need to advocate for awareness campaigns to reduce risks associated with hypertension and change clinical guidelines and practices for hypertension treatment.
Evidence Table Worksheet Assignment References
Shen, Y., Chanq, C & Zhang, J et al. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension and prehypertension in a working population at high altitude in China: a cross-sectional study.Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 19.
Singh, S., Shankar, R & Singh, G.P. (2017). Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi. International Journal of Hypertension, 1-10.
Yang, L., Yan, J & Tang, X et al. (2013). Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013. Plos One.

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