Importance of Children’s Health for Community
Health of the population is a key indicator of well-being of the nation. Healthy children today are a healthy society through the next 10, 50 and 100 years. Health of today’s mature and the older generation is the result of the circumstances and the life that they’ve lived from the day of birth and even before the birth, still in the womb. This is the result of health or illness of past generations plus current conditions of ecology (i.e. internal metabolism) in the body.Importance of Children’s Health for Community
According to World Health Organization: “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not only the absence of disease or infirmity” (Murray, 2013). Health is influenced by many factors linked to both biological and socio-economic backgrounds. Moreover, these groups of factors are interrelated.
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The government of every country understands the importance of proper health-care policy, since the responsibility for children’s health is not only on parents, but the whole state. Provision of the proper life conditions for children, elimination of poverty, available medical care and medical insurance, improvement of nursing process, promotion of wellness, sport and healthy lifestyle – are the main tasks of the society. Humanity acknowledges that the upbringing of healthy generation is a creation of the foundation of a great state, the basis of a prosperous life of community.
Responsibility for Children’s Health
The child population is exposed to multiple environmental factors, many of which are considered as risk factors for adverse changes in the body. According to WHO, the contribution of social factors and lifestyle in forming health is about 40%; the factors of environmental pollution – 30%; biological factors -20%; health care – 10 % (Kenworthy, 2011). However, these values are averaged. They do not consider age-related characteristics of growth and development of children, formation of pathology in certain periods of their lives, prevalence of risk factors. The role of certain socio- genetic and biological factors in the development of adverse changes in the health status varies depending on the age and sex of a child.
Child health in a society is constantly exposed to a variety of threats. Traditional threats to health and well-being of children and youth, such as eating disorders, perinatal disorders and infectious diseases, are followed by new problems: obesity, sexually transmitted diseases, psychosocial disabilities and mental health problems. Current and future threats to the health and well-being caused by environmental pollution, as well as the spread of unhealthy behavior characteristics and lifestyle among children and youth also cause concern.
Both medical institutions and parents are involved in taking care of health and development of the child. Parents are on the first place. It is important that doctors and teachers, mothers and dads should have constructive dialogues, listen to each other. Only in this case we can talk about saving and growth of children’s health.Importance of Children’s Health for Community
Since health of children is the highest value of the society, one of the main challenges for the society is its preservation and strengthening. In the state, children’s health problem is controlled by the health care system. In the United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible for the health of the nation. Condition of health care system is an important factor in the overall evaluation of the situation in the state. Health care is a litmus test that displays the level of social protection and education, transparency of government policy and liberal economy, effectiveness of government.
The Poor and Uninsured Children
It is known that the United States is the only industrialized nation that does not guarantee its citizens a universal and inclusive system of health insurance. Despite the impressive achievements of American health care system and medical services, they are not available to millions of Americans because of the extreme growth of cost. United States Census Bureau released data showing that in 2009 50.7 million people, or 16.7% of the population had no health insurance (US CENSUS BUREAU, 2010). Another 30% of population has incomplete medical aid (Wolf, 2010). According to the Institute of Medicine report, published in 2004, lack of health insurance causes around 18,000 deaths annually (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, 2004). It should be remembered that according to CIA World Factbook, America is on the 41st place in the world in infant mortality (worst record among developed countries) and on the 45th place in life expectancy.
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Society is interested in healthy children, so government policy is aimed at strengthening their health and full development. Government constantly adopts new laws, implements reforms and introduces new programs to protect children’s health. For example, European strategy for child and adolescent health and development, adopted by the WHO Regional Committee in September 2005 reflects the ethical and legal obligations to protect the rights of children and youth (Østergren, 2007). It also introduces the concept of the key importance of investing in the health of the younger generation, which affects all subsequent periods of life, as well as the development and stability of the economy and the prospect of creating a healthier society.
Poverty of the population is a big problem in the United States. In 2010, 15.1 % of population lived in poverty. The poverty rate in 2010 was the highest poverty rate since 1993. Between 1993 and 2000, the poverty rate fell each year, reaching 11.3 percent in 2000 (National Poverty Center, 2014). Another indicator of the living standards of the U.S. population is the fact that people have health insurance, which covers the costs for treatment. The number of people without health insurance is unfortunately growing. The current Census Bureau report states that the number of Americans living uninsured declined to 48.6 million in 2011 from 49.9 million in 2010. The number of persons insured in 2010 increased to 256.2 million from 255.3 million in 2009 (United States Census Bureau, 2011). Poor families need to make choices between food and health insurance and their choice is usually food.
Kids represent a disproportionate share of the poor in the USA: they are 24 % of the total American population, but 36 % of the poor population. In 2010, 16.4 million kids, or 22.0 %, were poor (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2010). Bad food and inappropriate living conditions of kids cause their poor health and this poverty create a cycle of poor health for generations.Importance of Children’s Health for Community
Nursing Process and Levels of Care Promote Wellness
The key result in the policy of any state is the nation’s health, as health appears to be a measure of quality of life. Health of children and adolescents is one of the most important parameters determining the potential of the country (economic, intellectual, cultural) as well as one of the characteristics of national security. One of the most important social issues faced by education today is taking care of health, physical education and development of students. Hygiene studies of recent years show the main reasons for the deterioration of the health of schoolchildren. One of the reasons is related to the nature of the educational process in the school, which is built without actualized needs of students. Another reason for the deterioration of the health of children and youth and sharp decline in the moral and spiritual condition of the students is a low sanitary culture, lack of basic hygiene practices, irresponsible attitude towards their health. Unhealthy lifestyle is perceived as normal behavior.
It is known that at the beginning of the 21st century the American society is experiencing a period of spiritual and moral crisis, so the problem of healthy lifestyle of adults and children is a national scale. Deterioration of the general level of physical and mental health of students in secondary schools, increase in the percentage of adolescents who have overweight and obese, the prevalence of depression among students, the growth of juvenile crime and various types of deviant behavior among juveniles stimulated the work in optimization of physical and moral education of children in the family and in the U.S. educational institutions.
In 2012 according to the sixth annual national survey of parents regarding the status of children’s health , conducted by Children’s Hospital CS Mota throughout the United States, the three most important obstacles of a healthy lifestyle for children of school age were identified as insufficient exercise (39% ), obesity (38%) and smoking (34 %). Among the other ” big issues ” that negatively affect the health of children and adolescents and prevent from wellness, were drugs ( 33%), bulling (29%) , stress (27%) , alcohol (23%) , teen pregnancy ( 23%), kiber bulling (19%) , school violence (16%) , depression ( 14%) and suicide (13 %) (CS Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health, 2012).
Promotion of wellness among children can reduce the risks of children’s health and that is why the government realizes new policies in this sphere. These programs promote appropriate structure of kids` healthy lifestyle that includes these factors: proper driving mode; training immunity and hardening, good nutrition, psycho-physiological regulation; psychosexual and sexual culture, rational mode of life and the absence of bad habits. It is proved that the proper nursing process and high level of care help promote wellness in the community. The more developed country is the healthier children are in it.Importance of Children’s Health for Community
Children are the happiness and hope not only for parents, but also for the whole society. One of the main goals of state’s work is upbringing of healthy younger generation. Health care of each person, improving health is the most important task of the state. However, the state of health of the population is by 70-80% dependent on individual lifestyle. It is generally recognized that the family is the basic unit of society. Family can create the most complete conditions for the birth and decent parenting, preparation for entering the life of the new generations. Children and youth are the future of our country, our hope for the continuity and enhancement of national wealth, historical achievements of our people in science and technology, culture, economic and social progress.Importance of Children’s Health for Community