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NUR 212 Health Systems Concept

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NUR 212 Health Systems Concept

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NUR 212 Health Systems Concept

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Course Code: NUR212
University: Richmond Community College is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States


Discusses health policies that apply to the topic. (This requires and is to be supported with evidence and in-text referencing).
Apply principles of health promotion, primary health care and advocacy relevant to this issue. (This requires and to be supported with evidence and in-text referencing). 
Apply the principles of equity, self-determination, rights and access applicable to this health issue as relevant to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. (This requires and to be supported with evidence in-text referencing) 


Health Policies Applied to Primary School Children with Asthma
Asthma in primary school children is among the major health concerns in Australia. This is due to the fact that, asthma in young children below the age of 15 is a common cause of vast presentation to admission in a hospital or the emergency departments(Health, National Institutes of National Heart, Lung, 2014). The diagnosis of asthma in children is normally considered when a child presents with symptoms such as wheeze, cough, and difficulty in breathing(National Asthma Council Australia, 2015). The Australia Asthma with the collaboration of the Department of Health and Australian Institute and Health Welfare (AIHW) have created various health policies and guidelines for primary school children in order to cab the complication of asthma and promote the quality and safety health in children(Evans-Agnew, Klein and Lecce, 2015). Such health policies act as a guideline for schools, teachers, parents, and children of which they are intended to be practiced fully to promote the welfare and quality of health to primary school children with asthma.
Health policies for supporting primary school children with asthma at schools are guided by the Australian Law and Legislation including the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 that make sure all teachers are well trained in first aid, the Education and Training Reform Act 2006 that clearly indicate that a school have to take responsibilities to safeguard the health of its students and the Schools Policy Advisory Guide that ensures all children with special needs will be assisted by the schools through guidance by medical care professionals(Long-sighted, 2014). There are various legal obligations for schools in relation to primary children with asthma which include the duty of care and disability discrimination legislation(Binns, James, and Lee, 2013). Regarding the duty of care, all staffs working at schools in Australia have responsibilities to take reasonable steps that are intended to protect primary school children in their care from risks of injury that are within their capacity and foreseeable(Al-Motlaq and Sellick, 2014).  
Relating to asthma management, all schools in Australia together with their staffs have a duty to take reasonable steps to inform themselves as for whether the primary school enrolled children are diagnosed with asthma(National Asthma Council of Australia, 2016). There are various ways schools and staff can determine whether a kid enrolled has asthma. This includes through asking their parents if their kid has asthma by use of application forms. where this question is not answered, it is the responsibility of a teacher and the school he or she is working for to perform a follow up in order to obtain sufficient information(Al-Motlaq and Sellick, 2014). The other way a school can obtain information regarding asthma in primary school children is by reminding parents frequently to inform them on any change of circumstance in terms of newly diagnosis children(The National Asthma Council Australia, 2012).
Asthma is normally under the category of disability and in that case, the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 are applied(National Asthma Council of Australia, 2016). This depicts that, all Australian schools must make sure primary children with asthma are not discriminated either indirectly or directly(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). Direct discrimination occurs when a primary school kid is treated unequally just because he or she has asthma. For instance, the school may decide not to allow kids with asthma to go camping. Indirect discrimination may occur where teacher perform exercises that may trigger acute asthma attack thus the kids with asthma opt not to participate(Evans-Agnew, Klein and Lecce, 2015). The schools have responsibilities to adjust certain routines in order to accommodate children with asthma. The Department of Health recommends that any school that has children with asthma must have an asthma management policy(National Asthma Council Australia, 2015). An asthma management policy contains an agreement that the school will comply with the health guides for asthma management as indicated by the Ministry of Health. Other than that, the school must have at least one staff who have completed an asthma basic management training and first aid.
Principles of Health Promotion, Primary Health Care and Advocacy as Applied to Primary School Children with Asthma
Health promotion in primary school children with asthma include all the preventive strategies that can be applied to minimize the risk of asthma attack, allow early interventions and prevent triggers of asthma. (Reeves et al., 2016) Health promotion strategies in asthma in children target all the stakeholders including all school staff, principal, the community around the school, children and their parents(The National Asthma Council Australia, 2012). Some of the health promotion strategies include holding school campaigns, direct education at school and parent meetings and training of school staff about basic asthma management guidelines(Long-sighted, 2014). Parents should be taught how to check the basic symptoms of asthma from their kids and how to prevent the occurrence of severe attacks. One of the health promotion strategies that can be applied to the school staff is the provision of asthma action plans that elaborate the emergency and basic guidelines of taking care of children with asthma(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Poulos, Cooper, Ampon, Reddel, 2014). The asthma action plans can be informed of posters or offering basic guidelines.
Primary health care involves the first detection or first contact a child with asthma receives medical services. Evidence shows that early intervention and diagnosis of asthma in children normally reduces the risk of severe attacks and hospitalization (Health, National Institutes of National Heart, Lung, 2014). Primary health care in children with asthma can be practiced through the use of screening programs at schools and use of other preventive strategies that minimize the risk of development of asthmatic attacks at school(Evans-Agnew, Klein and Lecce, 2015). This includes participating in the screening of children at school to check whether they have any asthmatic symptoms, screening risk triggers at school environments like smoke, colds, and risky flowering plants from school grounds. Risking minimization should be considered at school and out of school setting.
Advocating involve representing and enhancing the establishment of policies that help to minimize and treat primary school children with asthma. This includes presenting issues to the government and to schools that will enhance policy-making and planning(Evans-Agnew, Klein and Lecce, 2015). Advocacy involves not by giving suggestion only but also by being part of the charge. Some of the advocacy strategies for primary school children with asthma include advocating for regular review of medication the children are receiving, compulsory asthma emergency kits in all schools and professionally trained nurses with asthmatic experience to be placed in high populated schools with vast of asthma children(National Asthma Council Australia, 2015).  Advocating for free provision of emergency kits at school will help the disadvantageous children with asthma to have quick access to health care and reduce chances of emergencies. Where professional nurses or school well-trained staffs are placed at school with highly populated asthmatic children, high quality and safety care will be archived(Evans-Agnew, Klein and Lecce, 2015).
Principles of equity, self-determination, rights, and access applicable to asthma in primary school children as relevant to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families
Evidence shows that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are usually disadvantaged when it comes to quality of health as compared to the non-indigenous community(AIHW, 2013). This same problem applies to their families and the primary school children with asthma are no exception. This may due to inequitable distribution of resources as the larger part of the population comparing to non-indigenous Australians lives in remote areas where health care services are not readily available(Tsey et al., 2014). However, this should not be practiced in primary school as the legislation of Equal Opportunity Act suggest, all children at school should be treated fairly and given equal opportunity regardless of where they are located or which ethnic community they come from. To ensure that primary school children with asthma from indigenous Australia get equitable treatment as other children, the government should ensure that all remotely located schools in area where the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lives are supplied with enough emergency kits, healthcare professional and are fully screened before they are enrolled at schools(NSW Ministry of Health, 2013). Equity does not only apply to resources application only but also fair treatment at school, and equally acceptance like other children from non-indigenous communities.
It is the inherent right of all Australia to be treated fairly and have accesses to health care regardless of their race or where they come from. However, this does not usually apply to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and their families(Munns et al., 2018). Schools should practice the recommended health policies to make sure no indigenous primary school children with asthma are either discriminated or limited to access to health care while at school(Munns et al., 2018). Since the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may have different cultural characteristics, schools dealing with indigenous people should have a specialist who can intervene any deviation that might lead to poor management of children with asthma from the indigenous community(Munns et al., 2018). In most cases, Indigenous community parents have fear in reporting their kids are asthmatic to prevent discrimination. It is recommended that all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander should be self-determined and have a virtue of enjoying freely their culture and social statuses without fear(Munns et al., 2018). This, in turn, will make them feels free while reporting and giving statements about the progress of their children freely at schools thus enhancing the quality of care when it comes to asthmatic children.
AIHW (2013) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: South Australia (AIHW), Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Available at:
Al-Motlaq, M. A. and Sellick, K. (2014) ‘I don’t mind: Children’s attitude towards their peers with asthma in primary schools’, Children Australia, 39(2), pp. 125–130. doi: 10.1017/cha.2014.10.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2015) Asthma (AIHW), Chronic Respiratory Conditions – Asthma. Available at:
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Poulos LM, Cooper SJ, Ampon R, Reddel HK, M. G. (2014) Mortality from asthma and COPD in Australia, Cat. no. ACM 30. Canberra: AIHW. Available at:
Binns, C., James, J. and Lee, M. K. (2013) ‘Trends in asthma, allergy, and breastfeeding in Australia’, Breastfeeding Review, 21(1), p. 7. Available at:;dn=198834992311128;res=IELHEA.
Evans-Agnew, R. A., Klein, N. and Lecce, S. (2015) ‘Asthma Management in Educational Settings: Implementing Guideline-Based Care in Washington State Schools’, NASN school nurse (Print), 30(6), pp. 314–319. doi: 10.1177/1942602X15607603.
Health, National Institutes of National Heart, Lung,  and B. I. (2014) ‘Managing Asthma: A Guide for School’, NIH Publication., pp. 1–23. Available at:
Long-sighted, A. (2014) ‘How healthy are Australian children??’, Canberra: AIHW, (14), pp. 2011–2013. doi: ISSN 1032-6138; ISBN 978-1-74249-544-6; Cat. no. AUS 178; 576pp.
Munns, A.Toye, C.Hegney, D. Kicket, M. ,and Walker , R. (2018) ‘Aboriginal parent support: A partnership approach’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(3–4), pp. e437–e450. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13979.
National Asthma Council Australia (2015) ‘Australian Asthma Handbook – Quick Reference Guide’, Australian Asthma Handbook, p. 44. doi: 10.1016/B978-155860916-7/50017-8.
National Asthma Council of Australia (2016) Quick Reference Guide, National Asthma Council Australia. Australian Asthma Handbook – Quick Reference Guide, Version 1.3. National Asthma Council Australia, Melbourne, 2017. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407156-8.17001-X.
NSW Ministry of Health (2013) NSW Aboriginal Health: Fact Sheet 2013, NSW Health Press. Available at:
Reeves, K. W. ,Taylor, Y. ,Tapp, Hazel and Luden ,T. (2016) ‘Evaluation of a Pilot Asthma Care Program for Electronic Communi- cation between School Health and a Healthcare System ‘ s Electronic Medical Record’, Applied Clinical Informatics, 7(4), pp. 969–982. doi: 10.4338/ACI-2016-02-RA-0022.
The National Asthma Council Australia (2012) ‘Asthma and Complementary Therapies’, National Asthma Council Australia, Available at :
Tsey, K., Chigeza P., Holden , C., Bulman ,J., Gruis, H and Wentington,M. (2014) ‘Evaluation of the pilot phase of an aboriginal and {Torres} {Strait} {Islander} {Male} {Health} {Module}’, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 20(1), pp. 56–61. doi: 10.1071/PY12033.

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