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Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

A Review of Leadership in Nursing related to Clinical Nursing Practice

Abstract: Leadership in Nursing has become a major issue in health care settings and in management. Leadership in nursing is a wide in nursing field which includes different aspects. The aim of the review if the literature is to analyse the why nurses enter in the leadership in nursing and leadership in clinical nursing area to enhance the patient outcomes and to improve the quality of the service provided to the patients. This review includes studies from National Health Services in United Kingdom, University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgian Ministry of Social Affairs and Health Sciences of Sweden Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay


Introduction: Nursing is a profession which has wide range of skills and practice such as clinical care, leadership, management and many more. Similarly, leadership in nursing is also has a wide range of skills which includes different parts of the leadership for example, leadership in management and leadership in clinical area. This review of the literature analyse the leadership in clinical area and why nurses enter in nursing leadership. The Australian health care system faces a national shortage of healthcare professionals, particularly nurses. This shortage is most manifested in rural and remote areas (Davidson, Elliott, & Daly, 2006). So, these challenges require energetic nurse leaders to shape and direct clinical practice to ensure optimal patient output. In present days International studies shows that nurses are increasingly dissatisfied with the hospital working environment (as cited in Dierckx, 2008). Several factors affect the working in environment of the hospital such as insufficient support from management, inadequate information flow Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

…d in the nursing profession. Leadership in nursing is a multifactor issue requiring a more research done that can help to recruit the self-motivated nurse leaders, to improve the clinical nursing practice which helps to enhance the quality of nursing care.

With the growing complexity of healthcare practice environments and pending nurse leader retirements, the development of future nurse leaders is increasingly important. This article reports on focus group research conducted with Generation Y nurses prior to their initiating coursework in a Master’s Degree program designed to support development of future nurse leaders. Forty-four emerging nurse leaders across three program cohorts participated in this qualitative study conducted to capture perspectives about nursing leaders and leadership. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze and code the data into categories. We discuss the three major categories identified, including: idealistic expectations of leaders, leading in a challenging practice environment, and cautious but optimistic outlook about their own leadership and future, and study limitations. The conclusion offers implications for future nurse leader development. The findings provide important insight into the viewpoints of nurses today about leaders and leadership.

Citation: Dyess, S., Sherman, R., Pratt, B., Chiang-Hanisko, L., (January 14, 2016) “Growing Nurse Leaders: Their Perspectives on Nursing Leadership and Today’s Practice Environment” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 21 No. 1.Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol21No01PPT04

Keywords: Nursing leadership, emerging nurse leaders, practice environments, succession planning, healthy work environments, multi-generational workforce, Generation Y, academic-practice partnership, leadership development

…the absence of an adequate leadership pipeline has been cited as a key challenge in nursing today. The development of future leaders is a vital obligation for current nurse leaders. Yet despite recognition of the need to do succession planning, the absence of an adequate leadership pipeline has been cited as a key challenge in nursing today (Thompson, 2008; Sherman & Pross, 2010; Sverdlik, 2012). We now find ourselves at the convergence of a perfect storm in healthcare. Three million baby boomers born 1946-1964 (Zemke, Raines, & Filipczak, 2000) will turn 65 each year for the next twenty years (American Hospital Association [AHA], 2014). Their growing needs for services will place huge demands on an already challenged health delivery system. At the same time, many current nurse leaders are in this same generational cohort and will soon retire (Hader, Saver & Stelzer, 2006). Their potential replacements will be an equally large cohort of Generation Y nurses born between 1980 and 2000 who are expected to comprise 50% of the nursing workforce by 2020 (AHA, 2014). With the changes accompanying health reform, these young nurse leaders have a unique opportunity to play key roles in partnering with other healthcare professionals to lead in the improvement and design of the health system and practice environments (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010). To meet these challenges, we need to be certain that we have a large enough cadre of emerging leaders in nursing who are both interested in leadership and well prepared to assume the roles (American Organization of Nurse Executives [AONE], 2014; Scott & Yoder-Wise, 2013).Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

…community nurse leaders recognized the value of having emerging nurse leaders who would assume these roles with leadership education and the right skill set. In January 2012, an academic-practice partnership composed of 24 community leaders was formed in South Florida. The project goal was to recruit young nurses early in their careers into a Master’s degree program in Nursing Administration and Financial Leadership before they accept formal leadership roles. This is a paradigm shift from the historical pattern where nurse leaders have often “fallen into their positions” without leadership education (Sherman, Bishop, Eggenberger & Karden, 2007). With the growing complexity in leadership roles, community nurse leaders recognized the value of having emerging nurse leaders who would assume these roles with leadership education and the right skill set. Dr. Tim Porter-O’Grady, an internationally known nurse futurist, served as a consultant on the project.

This article reports on focus group research conducted as part of a larger study with each of three program cohorts prior to beginning their academic education. The findings indicate that future nurse leaders may be reluctant, even fearful, of entering formal leadership roles. Yet, they are also hopeful that their efforts can contribute to improving work environments, unite teams, and implement changes needed to advance healthcare. Their perspectives about leadership before they assume the role provide valuable insight into current nurse-nurse leader relationships and also have implications for the planning of future leadership development programs and succession planning efforts.Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

Emerging Nurse Leader Development
Not only is there a strong business case for orderly transitions in organizations, but younger staff now look for these professional opportunities when seeking employment. Effective succession planning through the identification and development of emerging nurse leaders is now recognized as an essential business strategy for organizations (Kim, 2012). Nursing workforce predictions indicate that there could be a shortage of up to 67,000 nurse managers by 2020 (Shirey, 2006). Not only is there a strong business case for orderly transitions in organizations, but younger staff now look for these professional opportunities when seeking employment. Meister and Willyerd (2010) in their research with thousands of members of Generation Y found that an employer’s willingness to develop the skills and talents of their staff ranked first in 10 criteria used by this generation to select a new position.

Shirey (2009) describes the first ten years of nursing practice as the “promise phase.” She observes that it is during this phase that young nurses are both socialized into the profession but also gain the knowledge and skills to help position them for the future. Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000) are in this phase of their careers and are ideal candidates for emerging leader programs. Successful experiences in developmental programs can translate into a nursing leadership career (Bulmer, 2013; Titzer, Shirey & Hauck, 2014). While most of their beliefs and values are not vastly dissimilar from other cohorts at a similar point in their development, Generation Y has two compelling differences in behavior from the generations who preceded them that need to be taken into consideration when doing leadership development. The first is their incorporation of technology as a “sixth sense” and a means of interacting with the world. The second is their expectation of organizational accommodation that is an outgrowth of how they were parented and treated throughout their education (McCready, 2011).Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

Leadership strategies and developmental activities that have worked well with other generations are not always as effective with our newest generation of nurses – Generation Y. It is this expectation of accommodation that has proven to be challenging for many nurse leaders. Leadership strategies and developmental activities that have worked well with other generations are not always as effective with our newest generation of nurses – Generation Y (Hutchinson, Brown & Longworth, 2012). Turnover in the first year of employment among this generation is a persistent problem in many organizations. Generation Y nurses are less accepting and more critical about workplace practices than the generations who have preceded them. The RN Work Project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson foundation is a longitudinal study that tracks a national sample of new nurses focusing on their career changes and work attitudes. Currently, 31% of new graduates leave their first job within the first two years and almost three quarters (73%) do not receive guidance to appraise gaps in practice or how to respond as a member of the professional team with practice environment improvement initiatives (RN Work Project, 2014).

…Generation Y is optimistic about nursing and may leave employers but not the profession. In spite of this higher job turnover, Generation Y is optimistic about nursing and may leave employers but not the profession. In a recent nationwide study conducted by AMN Healthcare (2013), this age group was the most likely to recommend nursing as a career. They also report more interest in pursuing higher education in nursing. When satisfied with their jobs, they have been noted to have greater organizational commitment than either Generation X or the Baby Boomers (Keepnews, Brewer, Kovner & Shinn, 2010) but are also more likely to monitor and consider employment opportunities in other settings (Tourangeau, Thomson, Cummings & Cranley, 2013). Recruiting and retaining Generation Y nurses in leadership may prove challenging without significant changes in the current structure of roles. Fear of failure is a significant concern in this generation (American Psychological Association [APA], 2012), so leadership development programs that promote hope and encouragement about the progress that they are making is important feedback. Generation Y nurses are just beginning to move into leadership roles. There are few studies about their perceptions of current leaders and their potential contributions in these roles. In order to accomplish more effective succession planning, a better understanding is needed about motivational and environmental factors that could prove challenging in their willingness to become leaders and accept leadership responsibilities.Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

Research Methodology
The qualitative findings presented in this article were part of a larger action research design promoted by Stringer (2007) that guided a three year funded project. Approvals for all aspects of the study were obtained from the University Institutional Review Board at Florida Atlantic University. Each year (2012, 2013, and 2014), a focus group was conducted with cohort members prior to the beginning of their coursework in a Master’s Degree program for Nursing Administration and Financial leadership. Each group was asked the same seven questions related to their perceptions about nursing leadership, the practice environment, healthcare challenges, and the future of healthcare (Table 1).

The focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently coded by three nurse researchers with qualitative research experience using a conventional content analysis approach explained by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). This form of analysis was selected because the aim of this part of the study was to describe the phenomenon of perceptions of leadership from future nurse leaders without using predetermined categories. After an initial review of the texts, the codes were agreed upon by the three researchers. Then, consensus was reached on the categories that ultimately emerged. To ensure trustworthiness of the data and efforts of qualitative rigor, peer debriefing, thick description, ongoing reflective commentary, member checking and an audit trail were utilized (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Review of Leadership in Nursing Essay

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