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Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

FOR A PSYCHOLOGY CLASS- (6 pages total)


Write a 3-page, APA-style, Times New Roman, 12 point font, double-spaced description of the following topic “SOCIAL SUPPORT EFFECTS ON SELF ESTEEM”. This description should include a detailed definition, illustrative examples for clarification, methods used to measure or study the concept, and any significant research findings. You should write this so that an intelligent lay person can gain a clear and reasonably detailed understanding of your concept. PLEASE INCLUDE AT LEAST 3 REFERENCES and it is OK to use Wikipedia as a source, but be sure not to plagiarize any portion of your paper. Note: Only discuss the topic itself, do not describe your plan for helping yet.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay



Write a 1-page, APA-style, Times New Roman, 12 point font, double-spaced description on a plan to help a person with low self esteem.

· Identify the specific goal you have for the person

· Explain how the topic you identified in Step 2 is relevant to that goal

· Describe precisely how you plan to effect the desired change

· Clarify how you will know that you have been successful


Reflect on what happened. Write a 2-page, Times New Roman, 12 point font, double-spaced reflection paper that addresses the following.

· What was it like to complete this assignment? What parts of it were enjoyable, frustrating, etc.? Did you learn anything about yourself or the person you helped?

· Did your plan work? What aspects of it worked and did not work?

· How would you improve your plan or the execution of your plan in order for you to be (even) more successful in the future?

Self esteem is all about how much we feel valued, loved, accepted and thought well of by others and how much we value, love and accept ourselves. People with healthy self-esteem are able to feel good about them, appreciate their own worth and take pride in their abilities, skills and accomplishments. People with low self- esteem may feel as if no one will like them or accept them or that they can’t do well in anything Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

People with high self esteem tend to be ambitious in what they want to experience in Life, they have a drive to express them and to communicate openly and honestly about their needs and desires. People with low self esteem rarely live their life to the full, they distance themselves from others, denied their love and support, and uncomfortable with success, some of them even take alcohol and drugs.

We all experience problems with self esteem at certain times in our lives-especially during our teens figuring out, where we fit in the world. The level of self esteem determines how we operate in life -how we interact with others such as spouse, children, friends, and strangers .It determines our achievements, and our satisfaction and happiness.

Self esteem has long been believed to play an important role in the use of alcohol; People with alcohol problems often have low self esteem. They judge themselves negatively-not just for their addiction, but also for other parts of their behavior or their personality.

Most of the individuals who are addicted to drugs and alcohol are not happy with their lives and live a life of despair and hopelessness, the major symptom is poor self esteem. Poor self esteem is at the heart of an individual’s addiction and dependency and there is an inverse relationship between alcohol dependency and self esteem, that if a person’s self esteem improves the individual’s addictive behavior.

1.1. Need For The Study:
Low self esteem is one of the causative factor that vast majority of alcohol addicts share in common, low self esteem is challenging in four areas. First they feel that they lack personal power, secondly many with low self esteem feel lacking the affection and attention of others, thirdly low self esteem results when people feel that they lack virtue, often feel unloved, unappreciated and lastly those possessing low self esteem hold themselves as incompetent in one or more areas.

Several researchers have argued that self esteem poses high risk for alcohol abuse in some populations, including adolescents, college students, and females (Donnelly, 2000).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

Another area of life that Alcoholics with low Self-Esteem often struggle with their occupation. Perhaps they may lack education, information, skill sets, or the belief in their ability to obtain a worthwhile job and so they self-sabotage and then get to the right about the fact that no one wants to hire them. Seeking continuous education is hopeless to those who have such low self-esteem since they see themselves as incapable of excelling in the process of studying, taking exams, and achieving success in all the systems.

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Low self- esteem can also manifest as a result of one’s inability to generate wealth, they see themselves struggling to survive in a world marked by competition, often struggle with their occupation. Those with low self esteem often resort to addictive behaviors in an effort to numb out the pain and escape to a world that allows them a temporary release from their sufferings and problems

1.2. Statement of the Problem:
Promotion of self esteem activities among alcoholic dependants

1.3. Objectives:
1.3.1 Assessment the self esteem level among alcoholics

1.3.2 Association of self esteem and Alcoholism

1.3.2 Assessment of the effectiveness of self esteem activities in promotion of self esteem among alcoholics.

1.4. Assumptions:
1.4.1. Self esteem level may be low among alcoholic dependants.

1.4.2. Practice of self esteem activities may improve the self esteem level among alcoholic dependants

1.5. Operational Definitions:
1.5.1. PROMOTION- refers to the improvement in level of self esteem among Alcoholic dependants.

1.5.2. SELF ESTEEM- perceived self concept of an alcoholic individual

1.5.3. ALCOHOLICS- a person craves alcohol, is unable to limit his or her drinking.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

1.6. Promotion of Self-Esteem Activities Among Alcoholics Dependants:
Conceptualization is the process of specifying what we mean when we use particular terms (Giemman)

The conceptual framework is derived from Pender’s health promotion Model. In this study Individual characteristics and experience by physical, social psychological and occupational problems may change the level of self-esteem of the Alcoholic patients. Self-Esteem activities are promoted based on the patient’s problems may bring change in the level of self-esteem. It includes perceived benefit of Self-Esteem activities like Individual and Group activities.

1. Studies related to low self esteem and alcoholism
2. Studies related to self esteem activities and alcoholism
1. Studies related to low self esteem and alcoholism:
A study conducted on self esteem and Alcohol use on 61 Alcoholic dependants who were admitted in a rural Midwestern medical centre. An individual’s reactions to his or her social environment are mediated by a sense of self esteem, low levels of self esteem are develop during Socialization. Results suggest that specific form of social support is important to recovering alcoholic dependants (Steffennhagen and Burns, 2006).

A Pearson correlation was calculated examining the relationship between the amounts of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days and self esteem. A low to moderate correlation was found (r (23) =.250, p>.05). (Jeremy W.Lawing, 2006).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

A Study conducted on drinking problems and self-Esteem of college students,148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, and the “Personal Self” section of The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. College Students are having low self Esteem (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%).Result shows an drinking behavior of college students are having low self esteem(()swego,2005).

A study was conducted on the effects of self esteem on substance abuse among homeless men. This experimental study involving 305 samples of homeless men was assigned randomly to the treatment group and Control group. Control group was referred to community based services, experimental subjects were exposed to individual therapy, group interventions, life skills and relapse prevention training residing in a 24 Hour shelter for three months. Results indicated that self-esteem was increased in experimental group than in control group (Brandon, 2004).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay


A descriptive study was conducted on self-esteem and alcohol dependants. Study comprises of two groups such as alcoholic dependants as one group and non-alcoholics in another group. Study shown that alcoholic dependants have lowered self esteem compared to non alcoholics self esteem (Donnelly, 2003)

A study was conducted to compare the level of self esteem among 30 alcoholics and 30 non alcoholic persons. They are assessed for self esteem using self esteem scale. The results showed that alcoholics had low self esteem when compared to non alcoholics(P<001).Alcoholic dependants were perceived as less loving and less dominant as compared to non alcoholics, they also perceived alcoholics to be aggressive and sadistic(Neeliyara,2003). A study conducted to identify the relationship between alcohol consumption and self esteem. Study comprises of 26 Samples (Employees of local retail store), their self esteem was assessed by using Rosenberg's self esteem scale. Results showed that alcohol consumption is strongly related to self esteem (T.F.Heatherson,2000). A Study conducted on how self esteem influences alcohol consumption Study comprises of 61 samples. Over the course of two weekends self esteem was measured using Rosenberg's self esteem scale. Study showed the results that self esteem is negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. In a study on adolescents drinking behavior, adolescents with high self esteem reported consuming less alcohol than adolescents with low self esteem. (Gerrerd, Russell, 2000 Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay A cross-sectional survey design investigated the relationship of substance use and self esteem. Self -esteem was assessed using Hare Self-esteem Scale. Four hundred and eleven samples were completed the survey. Results revealed that there is a direct relationship between alcohol use and self-esteem (F=12.8,df=2,343,p,.00001).Regardless recent alcohol abusers had the lowest self-esteem scores and never users had the highest scores(F.X.Gibbons,2000). A study says that low self-esteem is the universal common denominator among all people suffering from addictions. Low self-esteem is the true disease and it is the underlying origin of all problematic behaviors that plagues the world (Candito, 1996). A prospective study of self-esteem and Alcohol Use Disorders in Early Adulthood. The relation among Self-esteem and Alcohol use disorder diagnoses was examined in a sample of 240 men evaluated at four annual assessments over the college years. The results support clinical observations that low self esteem plays a particularly important it eological role in alcohol problems in men (Fromme.K, 1989). A number of studies have indicated that adolescents who refrain from drinking alcohol have higher self-esteem than do adolescents who drink. The questionnaire used in this study included the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale which has fourteen questions about alcohol use, the Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem Scale, (Mendel son, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1984).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay 2. Studies related to self esteem activities and alcoholism A Study conducted on how group activity has an impact on self esteem among alcoholics. Study comprises 40 samples, 20 patients undergone group activities for 12 weeks in an inpatient setting and 20 patients as control groups. Patients in the intervention group showed significant enhancement in self esteem, social skills and self confidence where as there is no changes observed in control group (John Wiley, 2009) Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your own essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! A Study was conducted how utilization of self esteem programs (Holistic Addiction Treatment Programme) plays an important role in Relapse prevention. Study comprises of 145 samples. Results show that 70 to 90 percentages, self esteem programs are effective in Relapse prevention and over all well-being to the treatment of recovering alcoholics (Harry Henshaw, 2007).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay A Study conducted on self esteem activities among Alcoholic patients. Study comprises of 43 samples, volunteers in the group undergone self esteem activities along with drug treatment, the other group only underwent drug treatment. Pretest-posttest comparison on a variety of physiological parameters indicated that significant improvements had occurred in psychological wellbeing including self esteem, self awareness, lifestyle adaptation and relapse prevention skills. Results suggest that promotion of self esteem activities improves self esteem among alcoholic dependants (Michael Peterson, Bryan johnstone, 2003) A study conducted on self-esteem and alcoholism among high school students total sample was 140(55males and 85 females) high school students. The questionnaire used in this study included the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (Moberg, 1983) which has fourteen questions about alcohol use, the Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendel son, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961). Study has showed that indicated that adolescents who refrain from drinking alcohol have higher self-esteem than do adolescents who drink (Butler, 1980; Young, Werch, & Brakeman 1989)Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Designing a research involves the development of plan or strategy that will guide the collection and analysis of data. The present study is designed to promote the Self-esteem among Alcoholic Patients. The methodology of the study constitutes research design, setting, population and sampling criteria for the selection of samples and tool for data collection. 3.1. One Group Pre Test Post Test Design: 3.2. Setting: This study was conducted in Kasthuriba Gandhi De-Addiction Centre, Coimbatore. The De-Addiction centre consists of 25 bedded 3.3. Population: The overall population for the study was alcoholic patients who were admitted in the Kasthuriba Gandhi DE-Addiction Centre from 28.06.2010 to 25.07.2010. 3.4 Sample size And Sampling Technique: Purposive sampling Technique was used to select samples who were admitted in the Kasthuriba Gandhi De-Addiction Centre during the period of study.30 patients were selected as samples during the study. 3.5. Criteria for Selection of the Sample: Inclusion Criteria: Patients who were admitted in Kasthuriba Gandhi De-Addiction Centre Alcoholic patients with Low self esteem Exclusion Criteria: Patients who are not willing to participate in the study. Alcoholic dependants associated with Psychotic symptoms.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay 3.5. Instruments and Tool for Data Collection: The tool was prepared based on review of literature and guidance of experts from the field of Psychiatry. Section I: This section includes demographic variables like age, education, family Income, occupation, marital status, marital disharmony, Type of Family Duration of Alcohol intake Consumption of alcohol, physical and psychological problems. Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your own essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Section II: This section consists of modified Rutgers's Alcohol Problem Index scale. It is a useful tool to assess the problem index among alcoholic patients. It consists of 15 questions. Section III: This section has an index to measure person's self-esteem. It consists of 20 statements to assess the level of self-esteem of alcoholic dependants. Score Interpretation: Self -Esteem Assessment Scale consists of 20 statements of assessment of patient's level of self esteem. The total score is 60, patient who scores the item '3' and more than 46 is having low self-esteem. Section IV: This section consists of intervention for Low self -Esteem such as Individual activities and Group activities. Individual Activities: Promoting individually performing activities. The patients are encouraged to do individual activities such as Art writing and Reading Newspapers. Group Activities: Group activities is two or more individuals unite together to promote an same activity. Patients are encouraged to do psychodrama (Group was given a theme, group members act out based on the theme) and Outdoor games (Tenniequots) 3.6. Variables of the study: Independent variable: Self-esteem activities. Dependant variable: Alcoholic dependants.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay 3.7. Techniques for Data Analysis and Interpretation: The tables were formulated for base line information such as age, education, occupation, type of family, marital disharmony, income per month, amount of alcohol intake, duration of alcohol intake, physical and psychological symptoms. Paired' test was used to analyze the significant difference in the level of self-esteem before and after promoting self esteem activities. 3.7.1. Paired't'test: The test was used to point out the effect of promotion of self esteem activities among alcoholic patients. t=d SD/ n SD= (d-d) Here d=Mean difference between pretest and posttest score. SD=Standard Deviation of the Pre test and post test Sore n=Number of Samples. Pilot study report Pilot study was conducted for a period of 2 weeks, from 28th May 2010 to 11th May 2010, to test the practicability of the tool and feasibility of conducting the main study. Study was conducted in Psychiatric ward of P S G Hospital. For pilot study 5 samples were selected. Data were collected by interview method.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Through the pilot study it was proved that self esteem activities in promotion of self esteem. The researcher would like to continue the study to promote self esteem among alcoholic dependants. Changes brought after pilot study During the pilot study, self esteem level was assessed and found to be low among alcoholic dependants. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The process of evaluating data using analytical and logical reasoning to examine each component of the data provided. This form of analysis is just one of the many steps that must be completed when conducting a research experiment. Data from various sources gathered, reviewed, and then analyzed to form some sort of finding or conclusion. There are a variety of specific data analysis method, some of which include data mining, text analytics, business intelligence, and data visualizations. 4.1. General Profile of alcoholic Dependants 1. Age Among thirty alcoholic dependants, six patients were at the age of 21-30 years, fifteen patients were at the age of 31-40years, seven patients were at the age between 41-50 years and two patients were between 51-60years.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your own essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! 2. Education Most of the alcoholic dependants were completed their secondary education, seven patients had completed primary education, six patients completed higher secondary education and seven had graduate degree. 3. Occupation: A. Type of Work It was found that ten were doing business, five were farmers, four were engineers, two were bus drivers and there was one from each category like tailor, rashion shop, goldsmith, shopkeeper, hotel supervisor, massion, mandapam decorator, Carpentor, cable TV Manager. B. Hours of Work Hours of work for alcoholic dependants were varying from6-15 hrs. Most of them nineteen were working between 11-15 hrs and eleven patients were working 6-10 hours per day. C. Income per Month Income of alcoholic dependants varied depends upon their occupation, fifteen were earning between Rs.6000-10000 per month, eight patients were earning between Rs.11000-15000 per month, four were earning between Rs.1000-5000 per month, three patients were earning between Rs 16000-20000 per month.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay D. Conflict in Work Area Majority of alcoholic dependants, twenty expressed no conflict in work area and ten had conflict in their work area. 4. Family history A. Marital status Twenty four patients were married, six patients were unmarried. B. Marital disharmony: Thirty alcoholic dependants came out with the problem of and only eleven patients had no such problems. C. Relationship with spouse: Among the alcoholic dependants, twelve patients were maintaining good relationship with their spouse and twelve patients were not maintaining good relationship with spouse. D. Relationship with children: Twenty two were maintaining good relationship with their children and two patients were not maintaining good relationship with children. E. Type of Family: Among twenty four alcoholic dependants, six patients were from joint family and eighteen from nuclear family. F. Family History of Alcoholism: There is no family history of alcohol intake among twenty five alcoholic dependants and only five patients were having the family history of alcoholism.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay 5. Social History: A. Social Support: Among thirty alcoholic dependants, one had Peer group support, three had support from friends, and twenty six had family support. 6. Alcoholic History: A. Duration of Alcohol Intake In years: Duration of 11-15-years of alcohol intake was found among fifteen alcoholic dependants, 6-10years among ten alcoholic dependants, 1-5years among three alcoholic dependants and 16-20 years among two alcoholic dependants. B. Consumption of Alcohol started by: Most of the patients twenty five were started consuming alcohol through friends, three started by their relatives and two started by their family members. C. Quantity of Alcohol when started (Bear in ml): Majority of the alcoholic dependants, twenty three started with 100-300ml of bear while seven alcoholic dependants were stated with 700-900ml of bear. D. Quantity of Alcohol at present (Hot): At present eleven alcoholic dependants was consuming 700-900ml of hot which is more than nineteen alcoholic dependants consuming 400-600ml. E. Time of drinking Alcohol: Among thirty alcoholic dependants, twelve patients were taking alcohol in the evening, four were taking alcohol in the morning and evening, fourteen were taking alcohol throughout the day.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay F. Money spent on Alcohol Consumption: Among thirty alcoholic dependants, most of them twenty two spent Rs 4000-6000per month for alcohol consumption seven spent Rs7000-9000 per month and one spent Rs 1000-3000 per month. G. Motivation for treatment of Alcoholism: Maximum number of patients thirteen were motivated by self, seven were motivated by already treated patients in de-addiction centre, five were motivated by family members and five were motivated by Relatives. Get Help With Your Essay If you need assistance with writing your own essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! H. Reason for Alcoholism: Seventeen patients were started on alcoholism due to psychological factors such as wife's death, job stress etc, thirteen patients were started due to peer group pressure and none had the reason of physical and psychiatric illness. Physically disabled adolescents face particular challenges in developing high self-esteem due to their reduced competency in physical activities and to the social stigma of disability. Self-esteem is an important and dominant component in an individual's motivational system, being the evaluative component of the self-concept. [Self-esteem] implies self-acceptance, self-respect, feelings of self-worth. A person with high selfesteem is fundamentally satisfied with the type of person he is, yet he may acknowledge his faults .while hoping to overcome them (Rosenberg, 1979, p. 31).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Self-esteem consists of learned valuative attitudes toward the self, based on past favorable and unfavorable experiences of competency, and autonomous and efficacious action of the individual in the environment (Gecas & Schwalbe, 1983). Selfesteem as a personal judgment of worthiness is influenced by the reflected appraisals of significant others. The persons in one's social network and the perceived emotional support from them contribute to self-esteem. A physical disability alters outward appearance as well as ability to do physical tasks. Presence of a disability 1 affect self-evaluations of one's own competence and worth. disability creates stress and challenges coping ability. If such a challenge is successfully faced, the feeling of competence is strengthened and self-esteem is enhanced, but failure diminishes it. Visible physical disability is socially stigmatized, and thus is likely to affect the attitudes and behaviors of people with whom the disabled person comes into contact. Stigma likely alters their reflected appraisals and the quality of their relationship with the disabled person (Fine & Asch, 1988; Hastorf et el, 1979; Resnick, 1984a; Strax & Wolfson, 1984). Difficulties in developing high self-esteem when growing up disabled are easily explained by developmental and social psychological theories about self-esteem formation. Adolescents with a physical disability are confronted with a dual challenge: they must deal with the developmental tasks that normally accompany the transition from dependent child to self-sufficient adult, as well as the daily reality of being disabled. Disability implies being different, and having difficulty with function. Disability may mean limitations in speed, agility, and mobility. For disabled adolescents, ability to develop both independence from parents and also normal peer relationships are usually affected (Wortman & Conway, 1989). Their social experiences may differ from those of their able-bodied peers by (1) their inability to 2 keep up physically with their peers, (2) being excluded from peer activities because of being unable or different, (3) exclusion from school activities secondary to frequent absences for health reasons, and (4) lack of opportunity for normal, informal interactions with peers in or outside of school (McAnarney, 1985).Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay The disabled adolescent is also a part of a social world which responds to the disability. Children convey general negative attitudes toward disabled including pity, rejection, teasing, staring at or humiliation of a disabled peer (McAndrew, 1979; Strax & Wolfson, 1984). These negative attitudes evolve in adulthood into social stigma, based on misconceptions and fear toward the disabled (Resnick, 1984a). Adolescence is a time of heightened self-consciousness, valuing conformity and not wanting to be different. The disabled adolescent is likely to receive the brunt of society 1 s general response to disability as it is magnified by the typical adolescent rejection of others different from themselves. Physical limitations in normal teen activities combined with characteristic rejection by the peer group may result in psychological, social and even physical experiences for the physically disabled adolescent that are very different. The typical experience of the physically disabled adolescent may be deficient in the requirements for normal healthy adolescent development (Konopka, 1973; McAnarney, 1985), including self-esteem formation. 3 self-esteem is a learned attitude toward the self. It may be high, believing the self is worthy and good, or low, believing the self is worthless and bad. According to Rosenberg (1979), self-esteem is formed from two sources: selfappraisals of one's competence, goodness, and worth; and reflected or perceived appraisals of one's significant others (Coopersmith, 1967; Rosenberg, 1979). If one attempts to predict the self-esteem of physically disabled adolescents, the prediction would likely be that, as a less competent, stigmatized group, their self-esteem should be lower than that of the non-disabled adolescent (Coopersmith, 1969; Stager et al, 1983). Self-esteem formation for the disabled child is certainly at risk, for s/he experiences reduced competency at tasks other children find easy and natural to accomplish. In social encounters, disabled children experience pity, rejection, and humiliation by persons who may be significant to them (family or extended family, peers, teachers). To the extent that a disabled child's significant others convey rejection or devaluation, it is likely to be detrimental to that child's self-esteem.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay A different and positive source of influence on the physically disabled adolescent's self-esteem is the experience of the disability as stress, and learning to cope effectively with that stress. Successful coping with stress is known to strengthen self-esteem. A child growing up with a physical disability may be challenged to develop his or her 4 adaptive resources over time, and may come to believe he or she is coping successfully with the disability, or even perhaps despite it. In the face of the challenges presented by the disability, other problems encountered by most people shrink in comparison. Some physically disabled adolescents may thus perceive themselves as coping quite competently. As perceived competency is a positive self-appraisal, selfesteem is supported. Family relationships may be affected by the presence of a physically disabled member (Featherstone, 1980). Family members may help provide needed social support for one another, and may develop other supportive relationships when they are under stress. Physically disabled children and their families often encounter many specialists in the planning or implementation of health care and remediation services related to the disability. These contacts may result in relationships that are both intimate and long-lasting. Such relationships are a potential source of information and social support in stressful times, and may foster successful coping and high self-esteem through the caring attention of a respected significant other.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Adolescents and young adults are subject to pressure from their environment, including parents, colleagues, and especially mass media, in order to meet appearance standards in relation to body image. This pressure favors dissatisfaction with self bodyimage[1] and thus can promote risky health activities, such as development of disordered eating, dep ression, and anxiety, all of which can continue to develop throughout adulthood. Body image is the perception of yourself in the mirror or when you picture yourself in your mind encompassing what you believe about your own appearance (including memories, assumptions and generalizations), how you feel about your body (including height, shape and weight), and how you sense and control your body as you move, how you feel in it and not just about your body. The relation in perceptions, feelings and thoughts ab out one´s own body construct in many different ways an example as body- esteem, body dissatisfaction, body distortion, body appreciation or drive for thinness and muscularity. Body- esteem, body dissatisfaction and other similar body image concepts are ofte n used interchangeably; we focus on body image as well as other issues that influence our selfesteem, of which body image is one of the highest predictors. Studies have suggested that young men and women have been socialized to believe that appearance is a primary basis for selfevaluation and evaluation by others, and low satisfaction with oneself is often related to low self- esteem [4]. To have a better understanding in the subject, theories of personality have been described. According to McCrae and Costa´s five -factor theory, personality is composed of 5 dimensions that include agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion and openness to experience, which all influence one´s self- conceptions. This consistency between personality traits and self- esteem is supported by the showing that these dimensions account for 34% of variance in self- esteem. In particular, three traits are the most related to self- esteem: emotional stability (r=.50), followed by extraversion (r=.38) and conscie ntiousness (r=.24)) [1],[2]. Experimental studies suggest that emotional stability moderates the effect of exposure to idealized images on body- esteem. Women and men who have low emotional stability experienced lower body- esteem after exposure to such imag es[1]. In clinical populations a link between eating disorders and personality traits and personality disorders with the symptomatic expression has been established. On the other hand, extroverts are generally more outgoing and positive in affect, leading to more positive self- evaluations—in other words, higher self- esteem.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay ORDER  NOW Self- esteem therefore mediates the relationship between three personality traits (conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion) and body- esteem, as studies have demonstrated [6]. It is suggested that future experimental and epidemiological research on self- esteem, body- esteem and eating disorders should include all three of these constructs in order to accurately model the ways in which personality influences body image. This theory of the 5 dimensions differs from Freud´s psychoanalysis theory of the Id, Ego and Superego—what Freud called the ¨psychic apparatus¨. The focus on body image isn´t exclusive; there are other results that suggest other factors that should be address ed as important issues influencing self- esteem more directly. Self- esteem is difficult to change and is partially hereditary (30% of variance is due to genetic variation [7]; however, self- esteem can be malleable, with prior work suggesting that it decreas es slightly during a transition from elementary to junior high school, but then it rises progressively through high school and college [1]. It is suggested that interventions in self- esteem are most effective during transition from elementary and junior hi gh school, mainly when adolescents are experiencing a decline in self- esteem (which is also the time when psychiatric disorders involving disordered eating increase in prevalence), not only by making an impact on self- esteem itself but also by preventing p otential downstream effects on body- esteem [1]. Understanding the concept of self- esteem raises a series of questions: How can the social structure, age and race difference the trajectories of self- esteem? How can low self- esteem caused by society´s press ure encourage behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence? Is this social pressure playing a main role in relational self- control? Can all of these issues contribute to low self- e s t e e m a n d i t s r o l e a s a r i s k f a c t o r f o r d e p r e s s i o n ? The social impact on self- esteem is an important cofactor in this equation, and health in people with low self- esteem continues to decline.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay How can the social structure, race, and age difference the trajectories of self- esteem? Recognizing the potential impact of self- esteem on well- being raises important questions about how levels of self- esteem vary throughout the population. A theoretical perspective in this regard has been that self- esteem is shaped within the context of the social environment and that levels of self- esteem are likely to be patterned by one´s position in the social structure (Marmot,Ryff,Bumpass,Shipley,& Marks, 1997)[8]. Therefore, the possibility of gaining access to opportunities for achievement afforded by one´s social position should be correlated with levels of self- esteem. However, inconsistencies with this general perspective have been found. While normative losses in functional capacity and social roles associated with aging might be expected to lead to declines in self- esteem later in life, researchers have failed to reach a consensus on the nature of changes in self- esteem across the adult life - course. Past studies have provided evidence of stability, declines and increases in self- esteem during old age [8]. Findings suggest that th ere may be substantial heterogeneity in the population with respect to self- esteem trajectories throughout adulthood, with some adults experiencing declines in self- esteem during the aging process, and others growing older without accompanying declines in self- esteem (Nelson & Dannefer, 1992), [8]. With respect to race, given the prevalence of substantial socioeconomic disadvantages, one might expect the self- esteem of African Americans to be lower than that of Caucasians [8]. However, reviews of several studies on race differences in selfesteem conclude that despite these socioeconomic disadvantages, African American adults tend to have levels of self- esteem that are at least as high as Caucasians' (Gray-little & Hafdahl ,2000). Focusing on race differe nces in self- esteem, while many investigators characterize African American culture as collectivistic (Allen & Bagozzi, 2001), a recent metanalysis indicates higher levels of independence among African Americans compared to Caucasians (Oyserman,Coon, &Kemmelmeier, 2002). Twenge and Crocker (2002) suggest that African Americans may maintain high levels of self- esteem in spite of disadvantaged conditions because of this strong endorsement of a culture of independence. In particular, independence is associate d with a relatively high level of selfesteem because people tend to construe their own successes and failures as being independent of the outcomes of others. Thus, such independence may allow individuals to maintain a relatively stable sense of self- esteem that is not entirely reliant on external conditions affecting as a group (Twene & Crocker, 2002). It will be useful to observe whether this increase in selfesteem is part of the independent struggle or if it is a reaction to a disadvantage that builds a strong character.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay The notion of a stable or gradually increasing sense of selfworth across age - growth and throughout adulthood matches theories of adult development that suggest that one's selfacceptance throughout life is expressed in a pattern that s hows an increase in stability and self- esteem, which is believed to improve by gaining emotional coping skills that are developed during the aging process [8]. On the other hand, the acquisition and later loss of social roles would seem to predict a patter n of increasing self- esteem in young adulthood followed by a decrease during old age. It is possible that these observed declines throughout life may be related to one´s achievement in society, socioeconomic status, and social position, or even how one views oneself in the future. In an effort to gain a more precise understanding of why self- esteem declines in life, a study explored the effects of three potential age -related challenges – functional limitatio ns, financial strain, and withdrawals from the work force – that have well- established associations with self- esteem (Collins&Smyer,2005). Declines from the work force appear to have played the most substantial role in explaining this decline [8]. The exp anding heterogeneity is consistent with more general aging theories suggesting that as people age, differences between them become more pronounced (Nelson & Dannefer,1992), [8].Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay How can low self- esteem caused by society´s pressure encourage behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence? The role of this social pressure. Behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support, are required when increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship [9]. The effects of self- esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self- construal. Engaging in such behaviors tends to increase the closeness, intimacy, and satisfaction that intimates feel in their relationships (Collins, & Mil ler, 1994), [9]. However, responses to behaviors can be undesirable or constitute rejection. There is a need to choose between risking rejection by engaging these behaviors to meet their connection goals and risking the less fulfilling relationship by avo iding behaviors to meet their self- protection goals [9]. Self- esteem has been negatively associated with behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence among people who were relatively high in relational self- construal but positively associated with behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence among people who were relatively low in relation self- construal [9]. This behavior may not only appear in intimate relationships, but it is society´s pressure on individuals that may also affec t other kinds of relationships in a similar way. The question of to what extent individuals with low self- esteem tend to hide their nature in order to fit into a society that abuses their insecurities opens the door to a dilemma that is still to be studie d. How can low self- esteem contribute as a risk factor for depression? To explain why low self- esteem has been related to depression, two dominant models have been described: The Vulnerability model and The Scar model. The vulnerability model states tha t low self- esteem is a casual risk factor for the development of depression [11]. Conversely, the scar model proposes that low self- esteem is a consequence, rather than a cause. This means that experiences of depression may leave permanent scars in the se l f- conception of the individual [12]. These two models may also operate simultaneously.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay In Ulrich & Company's (2014) research to advance the field, the relationship between low self- esteem and depression was examined. The results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self- esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Furthermore , these results suggested that this effect is driven mostly by general evaluations of worth rather than by domain -specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The vulnerability effect of low self- esteem was not confounded by effects of social support, maternal depression, stressful events, relational victimization, and their interactive effects with self- esteem. The results suggest that low self- esteem and depression are not related simply due to a link with maternal depression or lack of social support. [13] Further findings in this field are required for interventions to prevent or decrease depression [13]. Interventions should aim to enhance a person´s overall sense of self-worth, rather than imp roving an adolescent´s perceptions of his or her intelligence, attractiveness, and social skills. The results suggest that improving self- esteem reduces risk of depression regardless of specific circumstances such as whether the adolescent has strong or we ak social support or whether he or she experiences stress [13], and regardless of the location of birth.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Conclusion Self- esteem involves a variety of beliefs about oneself such as appraisal of self-worth. It is often seen as a personality trait, stable and enduring but also malleable. The conflict exists between one´s self appraisal and how society´s pressure maneuvers it. This concept becomes important in order to know better when and how to intervene and prevent low self- esteem from happening. The pathway by which this happens mediates the relationship between the personality traits and how we think about ourselves, t hus reflecting on how individuals think about their bodies, as a whole. Therefore the understanding of this process is necessary for its prevention. Poor self- esteem leads to poor body image and consequently to eating disorders and depression. Emotional st ability, extroversion and conscientiousness standout over the rest of the personality traits that form this pathway. If personality traits can be identified, intervention can take place, and finally prevention of eating disorders and other negative mental health issues due to low self- esteem, regardless of the age, race or social structure. Young men and women have been socialized to believe that appearance is a primary basis for self- evaluation and evaluation by others, especially during transition from el ementary and junior high school. It is this time frame when low self- esteem can be prevented from precipitating a domino effect that may lead to undesirable consequences in adulthood. The complex social problem depends not only on individuals themselves, b ut also on the images, messages and experiences to which they are exposed.Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay Future research should seek to identify the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes that mediate the effect of low selfesteem on depression. A possible intrapersonal pathway is that low self- esteem may increase the tendency to ruminate about negative aspects of the self, and rumination, in turn, may intensify depressive affect (Nolen -Hoesksema,2000). The knowledge provided about this trajectory suggests that interventions aimed at increasing global self- esteem among early adolescents, when interventions during transition from elementary and junior high school are malleable, are worthwhile and likely to decrease risk for development of depression. Aiming to enhance a person´s s elf- esteem during this period raises as a possible solution to a problem that is taking over academic achievement during high school transition, that ultimately loops into this domino effect with no end, regardless of interventions during the latest course of life. Although more research is needed on this topic, studies suggest that global self- esteem may positively influence important outcomes, besides adjustment, in domains such as health and interpersonal relationships (Orth, Robins, & Widaman, 2012). Fi ndings by O´Mara (2006), suggest that the most powerful selfesteem interventions use attributional feedback, helping adolescents attribute outcomes to effort, goal feedback, promoting realistic goals, and contingent praise, praising individuals for effort and improvements in performance. However, findings suggest that it is not effective to tell adolescents that they are great in the absence of real accomplishments and mastery experiences [13]. Self- esteem therefore is one of the most essential components of life. It can have a profound impact on your life and the lives of those around you.  Social Support Effects On Self Esteem Essay

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