The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Countries selected for final project
The two countries selected for the final project are Canada and India. The issue about the development of nursing in these two countries has been widely discussed in academic literature. According to researchers, “the advancement of nursing research has occurred more rapidly in countries with strong and stable economies”(Parahoo, 2009, p. 21). Therefore, the development of nursing research in Canada influenced India’s approaches to the study of nursing. It is known that the quality of health care services depend on the nature of nursing practices, including the role of educational practices, the quality of health care ensured by the practitioner and nurses (Sankaranarayanan & Sindhu, 2012). There are certain differences between Canada’s nursing education and India’s nursing education. The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper. Special attention should be paid to the socio-cultural environment that effects the development of nursing profession. Nursing education is considered to be professional education that shroud be properly planned and implemented. Unfortunately, there are still many problems faced by developing countries in promoting nursing education. Canada’s nursing development differs from India’s nursing development because of different approaches to nursing education caused by a wide range of factors.
The analysis of the historical development of nursing and the nursing profession in the selected countries will include education, ethical perspectives, and nursing and health care organizations and institutions. It is possible to compare the nursing development of Canada and that of India in order to identify the major differences and similarities between nursing education in Western and non-Western countries.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
There are several key points regarding nursing development in Canada and India. In Canada, nursing development is focused on the following points:
1883 –the establishment of the first nursing educational institution, namely the Women’s Medical College in Toronto.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
1920s – Involvement of women into nursing profession.
Late 1900s – Modernization of nursing.
1916 – Promotion of registered nurses.
1940s –Involvement of nurses into military services.
2000s- New development stage in nursing education.
2003- Nursing education is flourishing in Canada.
In India, nursing development is based on the following points:
1664 – Nursing emerged in the military during the East India Company. The first hospital for soldiers was started. The first nurses came to India from London.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
1797 -The first hospital for the poor was started in Madras, providing nursing services.
1854- The government established a training school for midwives in Madras.
1867 -The Indian women were involved in training as nurses at St Stephens Hospital at Delhi, under the rule of Florence Nightingale.
1900s- The establishment of training schools for nurses and the creation of nursing organizations.
2000s –The development of nursing programs aimed at providing improved services.
2002- The use of new methods in nursing development and education, e.g. the promotion of community nursing, the use of new teaching methods, the use of technology, research nursing, etc.
Nursing education plays an important role in the development of nursing profession. There are several current trends that can be identified in nursing education, including curriculum changes, innovative approached in teaching and learning practices, educational quality assurance, the use of technology, preparation of global nurses, transnational acceptance of nursing education through the implementation of shared resources and programs, and many other trends (Sankaranarayanan & Sindhu, 2012, p. 17).The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
In Canada, nursing education provided educational pathways that have not always represented progress in the field of nursing. According to researchers, “the persistence of alternate routes for the preparation of registered nurses, and the continuing divisiveness among nurses with differing educational backgrounds are problem areas that still require resolution” (Bramadat & Chalmers, 2006, p. 719). There are still many problems, including the development of the nursing curriculum and other issues. Nevertheless, today Canada’s programs of nursing education are considered to be very effective due to the significance of providing on-site clinical training, flexibility and excellence of the program’s structure. According to researchers, nursing study in Canada provides an opportunity for “hands-on learning and practice in the world’s most technologically advanced healthcare systems” (Nursing Programs – 2010: Advance Your Nursing Career, 2010, p. 30). The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
In India, nursing education is based on the established regulations of the Indian Nursing Council (INC) and other nursing councils that provide control over the development of education in nursing field. Historically, nursing concept was launched in India in the late 1800s, when Florence Nightingale, the outstanding nurse of the Crimean War, known as the Queen of Nurses, participated in assisting the injured soldiers in India (Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014, p.11). During her stay in India, Florence Nightingale promoted the introduction of the concept of nursing in India’s health care system. As a result, the first school of nursing education was started in 1871. Since that time, nursing education in India followed suit of Western countries. In general, “nursing education in India was mostly patronized by the Cristian Missionaries, and equally supplemented by the agencies like WHO, UNICEF, Red Cross and UNSAID” (Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014, p.12). Today, nursing education in India is influenced by technological innovations, recent studies and learning methodologies of Western countries.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Canadian laws are concerned with the ethical issues in nursing. Therefore, ethical perspective in nursing development is influential. Nurses are taught to follow the established principles of justice by providing protection to human rights, gender equality, fairness and promoting the public good (Bramadat, & Chalmers. 2006). In addition, nurses are taught to practice cultural understanding to avoid negative effects on multicultural society.
In India, ethical perspective is less influential because the Indian health system still reflects the existence of health disparities in the context of existing health care programs. At the same time, there is much evidence that Indian nurse ethics is widely studied in educational institutions to address all types of ethical dilemmas (Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014).
Organizations and institutions
There are many organizations and institutions that affect the development of nursing in Canada and India. These organizations set certain standards for the quality of nursing, ensure training and registration of nurses and provide effective communication for nurses to solve their problems.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
In Canada, the Canadian Nurses Association (CAN) and the International Council of Nurses (ICN) play an important role in the broader history of evolution of nursing profession and contribute to the growth of global health initiatives to support nurses in different countries. These organizations include many nursing associations, which are located across Canada. The major goal is to improve nursing leadership, promote the engagements of nurses in advancing nursing and enhancing nursing practices based on new standards (Villeneuve, 2013, p. 117). There are many other nursing organizations, including the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, the Academy of Canadian Executive Nurses and other institutions.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
In India, the leading nursing organizations and institutions that influenced the development of nursing education include the Trained Nurses Association of India (TNAI), the Indian Nursing Council (INC), Nurses’ League of Christian Medical Association of India, Catholic Nurses’ Guild of India, Evangelical Nurses Fellowship of India, Nursing research Society of India, the Academy of Nursing Studies and many other organizations. All these organizations are aimed at improving the quality of nursing services.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Socio-cultural environment during key points
Reviewing the socio-cultural environment that influenced nursing education in Canada and India, it is necessary to place emphasis on a number of factors, including wars, diseases and disasters, aging population, and the economy of those countries. The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Influence of war
It is necessary to place emphasis on the influence of wars on nursing development. According to researchers, “the World Wars and the wars of the previous century had a profound influence on the development of nursing” (Baylis, 2011, p. 201). The work of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War influenced the development of nursing both in India and Canada, establishing nursing as a profession. During wars, the military models of the delivery of health care services and hospital organization and management provided an opportunity to establish nursing as an independent entity (Baylis, 2011). Both Canada and India were focused on promotion of the roles of nurses in the military.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Economy at key points
The economy of Canada influenced the development of nursing education as the government provided financial support to the growth of nursing as a profession (Iwasiw et al., 2014). In India, economic reforms contributed to the development of nursing, but there are still many barriers that prevent nurses from successful development, such as low wages, lack of resources for nursing education, poor quality of instruction, improper clinical facilities and other barriers (Iwasiw et al., 2014). According to researchers, a number of economic factors influenced nursing development in both countries, including private, community and public funding for enhancing nursing curriculum development, local and state economies, the financial support of the government to promote high education in nursing, providing faculty and student grants and scholarships, and other factors (Iwasiw et al., 2014). Moreover, each country had a strong impact on other countries in terms of the development of nursing. This impact was caused by close economic relations at the global level.The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
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The use of technology or technological innovations in nursing field provides massive opportunities for nurses and their patients, as these tools help to enhance the delivery of nursing services and improve the quality of care. In Canada, special attention is paid to integration technology in nursing profession. In 1970s, technology was first used for “representing, calculating, and rationalizing the needs of patients for nursing care” (Rankin & Campbell, 2006, p. 20).
The nursing staff in India lacks sufficient technological support that should be applied to nursing practices. Nevertheless, the government has adopted new programs and policies to improve technological support in this field (Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014). According to recent study, “the government of India has launched Health Management Information System (HMIS) to convert local health data into real time useful information”(Weaver, 2010, p. 562). The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Influence on current health care
The major historical developments in nursing influenced the current accessibility, quality and outcomes of the health care system in both countries.
Today, special attention is paid to accessibility of health care services. In India, the access to quality health care services is improper as recent studies show that the “average Indian citizen remains underserved by the present health care system” (Parahoo, 2014, p. 230). Indian citizens face the following problems that influence accessibility: physical proximity to hospitals and clinical facilities, high cost of treatment, predominance of private health care providers, poor level of education of health care providers, lack of the needed diagnostic equipment, and other factors (Weaver et al., 2010).
In Canada, the access to health care services is les problematic because of the higher level of living in this country. Canada’s health care system is developed to provide reasonable access to services due to insurance, reasonable compensation for health care providers, sufficient amount of hospitals, staff personnel, and equipment, effective public administration and control over health care system (Rankin & Campbell, 2006). The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
The quality of health care systems in Canada and India depends on the quality of nursing development in these countries because nursing is an essential part of health care delivery system (Baylis, 2011). In Canada, the quality of health care system is good because the federal legislation and effective governmental policies support care services, including nursing services (Rankin & Campbell, 2006). Nursing profession is highly valued in Canada. Sufficient funding arrangements guarantee quality and universality of nursing services (Weaver et al., 2010).
However, in India the quality of health care delivery is rather low because of unreliable supply system, unaffordable prices, improper funding for research work to prevent the spread of neglected diseases, lack of attention that should be provided to aging population, and other problems (Parahoo, 2014). As a result, India’s health care delivery is insufficient to meet the needs of patients. Many people ignore medicine, using alternative approaching, such as Ayurveda, herbs, yoga and other non-traditional methods of treatment, which are more reliable and accessible to them (Sankaranarayanan & Sindhu, 2012).The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Due to effective programs, polices and legislation, health care system in Canada is well-developed. According to recent studies, health care system is financed not only through taxes and government’s funding, but also through private insurance programs and direct payments (Baylis, 2011). As Canada is a multicultural country, increased level of aging population and other factors influence the quality of health care delivery. The Aboriginal people face certain challenges as there is no sufficient supply of healthcare professionals (Parahoo, 2014).
In India, health care delivery is less effective than in Canada, because India is a developing country, which faces considerable problems in different areas. For example, poor regulatory regime influenced the development of nursing, making this profession poorly-paid (Iwasiw et al., 2014). Actually, these problems can be explained by “outmoded legislation, dating from pre-colonial days, insufficient enforcement, absence of rules and weak efforts to ensure their implementation at the state government level and other failures” lead to low quality care services and poor health of India’s population (Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014). The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Both countries are focused on promoting effective nursing services to address the needs of patients. In Canada, the following points can be used to identify the effectiveness of nursing development: implementation of the curriculum, application of leadership nursing skills, compliance with the established laws and regulations, protection of the public health, technological innovations, enhanced communication, and other points. In India, nursing development can be characterized by the following elements: slow development of nursing research, emphasis on the local tradition of care, threatening the existing patriarchal principles, according to which women face segregation, using western approaches to nursing, and other points. In both countries, nursing organizations help to promote the development of public health policies. In Canada, the delivery of health care is more progressive than in India because of the quality and cost- effectiveness of health care services, effective performance management, and the impact of information systems and other technological tools aimed at enhancing the quality of care (Baylis, 2011; Shivendra & Mahapatra, 2014).The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper
Actually, this deeper understanding of nursing can be related to my future role in health care. It is important to learn the history of nursing development because this knowledge helps to develop the proper skills and abilities, which affect the quality of services and the overall world outlook.
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Bramadat, I. J. & Chalmers. K. I. (2006). “Nursing education in Canada: historical ‘Progress’—contemporary issues,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14 (9): 719–726.
Iwasiw, C. L., Goldenberg, D. & Andrusyszyn, M. (2014).Curriculum Development in Nursing Education. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Parahoo, K. (2014).Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues. Palgrave Macmillan.
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Nursing Programs – 2010: Advance Your Nursing Career. (2010). Peterson’s Press.
Sankaranarayanan,B. & Sindhu, B. (2012). Learning and Teaching Nursing. JP Medical Ltd.
Shivendra, S. & Mahapatra. R. H. (2014). “Nursing Education in India,” University News, 52(46): 11-16.
Villeneuve, M. J. (2013). “Canadian Nurses Association and the International Council of Nurses,” Realities of Canadian Nursing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Weaver, C. A., Delaney, C. W., Weber, P., Carr, R. L. (2010). Nursing Informatics for the 21st Century: An International Look at Practice, Education, and EHR Trends. The Development of Nursing In Canada & India Research Paper