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The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper

The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
A virus is an ultra microscopic infectious organism that, having no independent metabolic activity, can replicate only within a cell of another host organism. A virus consists of a core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a coating of antigenic protein and sometimes a lipid layer surrounds it as well. The virus provides the genetic code for replication, and the host cell provides the necessary energy and raw materials. There are more than 200viruses that are know to cause disease in humans. The Ebola virus, which dates back to 1976, has four strains each from a different geographic area, but all give their victims the same painful, often lethal symptoms.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The Ebola virus is a member of a family of RNA viruses known as ?Acyclovir’ and falling under one genus,?Filo virus’. “The Ebola virus and Mar burg virus are the two known members of the Filo virus family” (Journal of the American Medical Association 273: 1748). Mar burg is a relative of the Ebola virus. The four strains of Ebola are Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Ebola Res ton, and Ebola Tia. Each is named after the geographical location in which i twas discovered. These filo viruses cause hemorrhagic fever, which is actually what kill victims of the Ebola virus.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper

The virus is active in monkeys and they get it every 2nd autumn. The virus is non lifelessly to the monkeys. In Africa many people eat monkey meat as a beginning of protein and this is how they get the Ebola virus in their systems. There have been theories that the Ebola virus can be transmitted from chiropractics to people and that the chiropractics have the Ebola virus in them. It has ne’er been scientifically proven that chiropractics carry the Ebola virus. The Ebola virus is spread from individual to individual much like the AIDS virus is spread through organic structure fluids. In many of the medical installations in the underdeveloped states of Africa acetate leafs and panpipes are reused because of a low budget this can besides lend to the spreading of the Ebola virus. The Ebola virus can be spread merely from close contact with septic individual. Symptoms of the Ebola virus take about four to sixteen years to first look. These first symptoms are really much like the common grippe bug, they include fever, terrible concerns, terrible nemesis and diarrhea. The virus so targets the liver, lymphatic variety meats and kidneys. Infected people begin to shed blood out of al gaps in the Body. The virus so turns all the variety meats it effects into a thick liquid like fluid and it besides destroys the hurting receptors in the encephalitic so for the last few years a individual infected with the virus is alive they are practically living dead’s. They are alive but they have no sense of it at all, their organic structure no longer maps and they no longer react to anything. It merely takes a few year’s for a individual to decease one time they have been infected this severely with the virus. Once a individual has been infected that severely with the Ebola virus there is no coming back from it. Many of the people infected don’t even make it that far they normally die of daze foremost.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Outbreaks of the Ebola virus have been really limited over the past few old ages with merely a few little eruptions in Africa. Once a individual has been diagnosed with the Ebola virus they must be isolated so they are non a menace to distribute the virus to other people. Once a individual has been isolated, physicians and nurses must have on gowns, masks, baseball mitts and goggles when taking attention of a patient. The physicians and nurses must carefully dispose of acetate leafs, panpipes, wastes and in some instances cadavers. Disposable stuffs are burned one time The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Retrovirus are a household of enveloped RNA viruses that are defined by their common features in construction. reproduction belongings and composing. These viruses are of import in research in many different countries of scientific discipline. such as biological science. genetic sciences. medical specialty. malignant neoplastic disease. and biotechnology. The procedure of pseudo typing for retroviruses. in peculiar. allows research workers to look into the entry of these viruses into cells. One peculiar retrovirus. the Ebola virus. was investigated to exemplify how the virus proteins are integrated into retroviruses that are faulty and still come in the virus into other cells. Previous probes into the function of nitroglycerin have found that the nitroglycerin plays a cardinal function in the infection of the Ebola virus.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The effects of covalent alterations in the nitroglycerin. GP1 and GP2. were analyzed. It was hypothesized that the riddance of one of the cysteines in the cysteine braces would do riddance of the other cysteine. ensuing in effects of the nitroglycerin processing. The consequences of the survey suggest a theoretical account for the cysteine span for the Ebola virus nitroglycerin. which helps find the specific sphere for each cysteine’s. Overall. the survey provided information in the apprehension of the construction and map of the nitroglycerin in the Ebola virus.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Retrovirus are a household of enveloped RNA viruses that are defined by their common features in construction. reproduction belongings and composing. The viruses range from 80-100 manometer in diameter and have an outer lipid envelope composed of viral proteins. The construction and location of their interior protein nucleus is a specific feature to the members in this household of viruses. In add-on. the reproduction scheme. known as contrary written text. of the RNA into a additive two-base hit stranded DNA is the trademark of this household of viruses. Furthermore. retroviruses are broken into two types of classes: simple and complex. The type of class depends of their familial construction. In a retrovirus there are three coding spheres that contain the information for the vision proteins. which supports the synthesis of the internal visions that form the nucleotide constructions.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
This nucleotide constructions are responsible for the contrary RNA polymer. Retrovirus are besides broken down into seven extra groups based on evolutionary relationships. Five of the seven groups are composed of oncogene viruses ( malignant neoplastic disease doing viruses ) and the other groups are referred to as retroviruses and retroviruses. ( Hughes and Var mus. 1997 ) Retroviruses are of import in research in many different countries of scientific discipline. such as biological science. genetic sciences. medical specialty. malignant neoplastic disease. and biotechnology. For case current research is geared towards retroviruses that undergo the procedure of pseudo typing. The procedure of pseudo typing allows the retrovirus to obtain other types of enveloped viruses to utilize them for entry into other cells. One peculiar retrovirus. the Ebola virus. is presently undergoing research for citrons therapy at the David Sanders lab at Purdue University.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The research workers at this research lab have been able to show pseudo typing in the Ebola virus. For case. the research workers have illustrated how the Ebola virus proteins are integrated into retroviruses that are faulty. but can still ease entry of the virus into other cells. In add-on. the research allows scientists to analyze how the Ebola virus is able to come in cells independent of other stairs s required in the virus type of life rhythm. Furthermore. the research has focused on the Ebola virus application in citrons transportation and gene-therapy experiments. ( 2007. Dave Sanders Lab ) The current paper discusses research conducted on the alteration of the Ebola virus nitroglycerin. get downing with a background on the method of retrovirus reproduction and pseudo typing.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Retrovirus Replication
The retrovirus reproduction method occurs through entry from host cell through a method of fond regard with the surface proteins on plasma membrane receptors. This attachment fuses the virus to the host cell membrane. In add-on. the virus is really specific to carnal species and mark cells in the animate being. Once the virus attaches to the cell and enters the RNA genome. the RNA is transcribed into a double-stranded Oligonucleotide acid molecule. farther ensuing in sequences of the viral DNA. The written text of DNA includes two happenings of the rearward RNA polymer from the 5′ terminal terminal and the 3′ terminal terminal on the original temp let cell. ( Hughes and Varmus. 1997 )The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Pseudo typing and Ebola Virus
Pseudo typing refers to the deficiency of the structural protein being encoded by a nucleic acid. Basically. pseudo type viruses use recombination viral citron transduction. Pseudo type viruses are of import in research due to the outer shell. Ebola virus is a type of pseudo type virus that is from the Order Monosyllables. Family Fluoridate. Viruses from the Family Fluoridate cause a hemorrhagic disease in both worlds and nonhuman Primate’s. In add-on. this virus is classified as a bio safety degree 4. ( 2007. Dave Sanders Lab ) Ebola virus has besides been classified as an aggressive pathogen and was foremost recognized near the Ebola River vale in Zaire in the twelvemonth 1976. Since so. eruptions of this virus have been observed in cardinal Africa.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
In fact there was on eruption in the Republic of the Congo with125 deceases in 2003. The natural host for the Ebola virus is unknown and hence. it has been impossible to implement a control system to destruct the virus and prevent transmittal to worlds. In add-on. the virus has a speedy patterned advance when infected in a homo. which farther complicates the control of the virus and decreases the ability to get susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore. there are presently no antiviral drugs or vaccinum that works against the virus in the human population. ( Sullivan et al. . 2003 )
The patterned advance of the Ebola virus has been known to take class within 14-21 years after infection. The symptoms of the disease include fertility. unease. and myopia. As the infection runs its class. the patient starts to undergo terrible shed blooding to include GI hemorrhage and Rosella. every bit good as lymphocyte and necrophilia. which are hematological jobs. Through the survives that have been conducted. it has been found that when the virus enters the host. it releases cytokines which cause the inflammatory responses. further damaging the liver. The virus so finally infects the micro vascular system. which leads to the terminal phases of the virus. which accounts for the hemorrhagic hemorrhage and daze. ( Sullivan et al. . 2003 )The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper

Symptoms of Ebola viruses
Signs and symptoms normally start all of a sudden within 14 to 21 year’s of infection with Ebola and Mar burg virus although the disease originally existing with general wellness like symptoms such as fertility ( Sullivan, Yang and Nobel, 2003 ) . Human can acquire disease after the development of symptoms such as high fertility, concern, joint and musculus hurting, sore pharynx, failing, tummy hurting and deficiency of competency, after these symptoms purging, diarrhea, Rosella, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver infections, and in some instances internal and external hemorrhage ( WHO, 2014 ) . Shed blooding develops because the virus raids the endothelial cells that line blood vases and the vases turn into faulty ( Cornell, 2014 ) . As the disease gets worse, it causes shed blooding inside the organic structure, every bit good as the eyes, ears, and nose and besides some people will purge or cough up blood, have bloody diarrhea ( Hewlett and Hewlett, 2008 ) . Some patients may besides develop a Rosella, ruddy eyes, hiccoughs, thorax striving and trouble external respiration and swallowing ( Neil and Rollin, 2012 ) .The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
1.5. Diagnosis methods for Ebola virus
Ebola virus is hard to name because early marks and symptoms approximate other disease such as malaria and enteric fever ( Tamfum et al, 2012 ) . The reproduction and written text action of Ebola virus has been inquired by corrected C transcript and simulation system depend on the nucleoside protein cistrons and virus-specific minigenome in transfected cells ( Klenk and Feldmann, 2014 ) . Confirmation of the symptoms showed by Ebola virus infections are done utilizing the undermentioned analysis: antibody- gaining control enzyme-linked immune-sorbent check ( ELISA ) , antigen-capture sensing trials, serum neutralisation trial, change by reversal RNA polymerase polymerase concatenation reaction ( RT-PCR ) assay, electron microscopy, virus isolation by cell civilization ( WHO, 2014 ) . By naming the disease such as cholera and malaria physicians find out the Ebola when there are no symptoms seen ( Sullivan, Yang and Nabel, 2003 ) . To name Ebola, physicians will inquire about symptoms, current medical conditions, household history of medical status and current medicine ( Yuan et Al, 2012 ) . The samples taken from patients are more hard to prove and place the Ebola disease ( Towner et al, 2004 ) . However, if a individual has the early symptoms of Ebola and has had contact with the blood or organic structure fluids of a individual ill with Ebola, contact with objects that have been infected with the blood or organic structure fluids of a individual ill with Ebola should be isolated ( Saijo et al, 2006 ) . For different timeline of infection there are different types of diagnostic trials such as retrospectively in asleep patients should take immuno histo chemisrty testing, PCR ( Polymer concatenation reaction ) and virus isolation ( Public Health Agency of Canada, 2014 ) .The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
1.6. Treatments for Ebola virus
There is no direct intervention for the disease Ebola virus at the minute, the anti- viral drugs possible today have no affect on Ebola virus ( Turner and RN, 2014 ) . Vaccines for Ebola are still under research phase and there is no proper inoculation for the usage of patients. ( Nyamathi et al, 2003 ) . However, they are soon working a deep scope of conceivable interventions, along with blood merchandises, immune therapy and drug therapy although certificated vaccinums are non applicable yet, but 2 possible vaccinums are tested for human safety ( WHO,2014 ) . Ebola recovery depends on patient ‘s immune response which may make antibodies that will last at least 10 old ages ( Casillas et al, 2003 ) . The filo virus nitroglycerin ( GP ) helps to protect against infection. There are assorted vaccines based on GP includes rhinovirus, para influenza virus, Venezuelan equine nephritis virus, vesicular mastitis virus and virus like atoms ( Brief, 2012 ) . When supplying fluids, keeping blood force per unit area, supplying O as needed, replacing lost blood and handling other infections develop antiviral drugs have no verified consequence in handling infections with either virus ( Thomson, 2006 ) . There is no vaccine to avoid Ebola but the good manner to avoid catching the Ebola disease by non see an septic country ( Klenk and Fieldsman, 2004 ) .The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
1.7. Decision
Ebola is a disease that has taken many lives in the recent yesteryear. It is a RNA virus which causes terrible hemorrhagic fertility which may ensue is decease. It began in the West Africa and is on the spread around the Earth at present. The first instance of Ebola was recorded in 1976, but the broad spread has begun late. The primary host is believed to be fruit chiropractics from which it spread on to worlds through waste or mucous stuffs. Diagnosis of Ebola is hard because common diagnosing will demo it as malaria or enteric fever. Certain trials should be farther done to name it. Not all states have the resources and equipment’s to transport out these specific trials. It will merely be able to place it in later phases when it is hard to be cured. The symptoms of Ebola at start will stand for usual fertility but subsequently on develop with concerns, joint striving s, diarrhea, purging and eventually internal and external hemorrhage. Even though Sri Lanka has non experienced Ebola at present, it is the people’s responsibility to be cognizant of it and be precautions.
I. Introduction
You are dispatched to the scene for a 26 twelvemonth old male who is sing gripes like symptoms. When you arrive on scene you find the male sitting sloped, coughing. The patient states that he has had a concern for the past two year’s and that it has invariably gotten worse holding a temperature ; he states that he has been truly sore, and has non been able to eat anything without conveying it back up for the past two year’s every bit good. Now how many paramedics, or other medical professionals, would ignore this as a bad instance of the grippe? The symptoms above surely do sound like a simple instance of the grippe. What if it was non? What if it was something more lifelessly? Would you be more cautious if the patient presented with a Rosella, with a fertility that has lasted more than three year’s, unexplained hemorrhage from mucous membranes, integument, and or the GI piece of land?The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
II. Epidemiology/ Pathology
Typically any medical professional would take the latter of the two patients more serious because the patient is sing more terrible and typical symptoms of the Ebola virus. The Ebola virus is a reasonably fatal disease that research workers know small about. There are approximately four or five different strains of the virus, the most lifelessly of which is the Ebola-Zaire ( EBO-Z ) virus ( National Center for Infectious Disease, 2009 ) .
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebola viruses.[1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.[1] Vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.[1] At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally.[1] The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average of about 50 percent.[1] This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows six to sixteen days after symptoms appear.[2]The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may also occur from contact with items recently contaminated with bodily fluids.[1] Spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions.[3] Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months.[1][4][5] Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it.[1] Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.[1]
Control of outbreaks requires coordinated medical services and community engagement.[1] This includes rapid detection, contact tracing of those who have been exposed, quick access to laboratory services, care for those infected, and proper disposal of the dead through cremation or burial.[1][6] Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution.[1] Prevention includes limiting the spread of disease from infected animals to humans by handling potentially infected bush meat only while wearing protective clothing, and by thoroughly cooking bush meat before eating it.[1] It also includes wearing proper protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease.[1] An Ebola vaccine has been studied in Africa with promising results.[7] No specific treatment is available, although a number of potential treatments are being studied.[1] Supportive efforts, however, improve outcomes.[1] This includes either oral re hydration therapy (drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids as well as treating symptoms.[1]The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The disease was first identified in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara (a town in South Sudan) and the other in Yambuku (Democratic Republic of the Congo), a village near the Ebola River from which the disease takes its name.[8] EVD outbreaks occur intermittently in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa.[1] Between 1976 and 2013, the World Health Organization reports a total of 24 outbreaks involving 1,716 cases.[1][9] The largest outbreak to date was the epidemic in West Africa, which occurred from December 2013 to January 2016 with 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths.[10][11][12] It was declared no longer an emergency on 29 March 2016.[13] Other outbreaks in Africa began in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May 2017,[14][15] and 2018.[16][17]

What is Ebola virus disease?
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a rare but serious disease caused by infection of the Ebola virus. There are five known strains of the virus. Four of them affect people. One affects only nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees) and pigs.
EVD was first identified in 1976 near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). In 2014, large outbreaks occurred in the West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were four cases in the United States. Eleven people were treated and one person died. Since then, several ongoing cases have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper

Symptoms of Ebola virus disease
Symptoms of EVD often begin 8 to 10 days after a person is infected with the virus. The virus cannot be spread to another person until symptoms appear.
Early symptoms can include:

muscle pain
sore throat

Later symptoms can include:

stomach pain
unexplained bruising or bleeding, such as a bloody nose, bloodshot eyes, or bloody urine or diarrhea

What causes Ebola virus disease?
The exact cause of EVD is unknown. Scientists believe that it is animal-borne and most likely comes from bats, which transmit the Ebola virus to other animals and humans. There is no proof that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit the virus. Once infected, a person can spread the virus to other people.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The Ebola virus is not as contagious as common viruses, such as colds or the flu. It is not spread through air, water, or food. The Ebola virus is spread through direct contact with:

Blood of a person infected with the virus.
Body fluids, such as breast milk, stool, saliva, semen, sweat, urine, or vomit, of a person infected with the virus.
Objects, such as needles or syringes, that are contaminated with the virus.
Animals, such as bats and primates, that are infected with the virus.

Direct contact means that a person’s eye, mouth, nose, or broken skin touches contaminated blood, fluids, or an object. Broken skin may be a cut, scratch, scrape, or open wound.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
For most people, the risk of being infected with the Ebola virus is extremely low. The risk increases if you:

Travel to an area where known EVD outbreaks have occurred.
Help take care of someone infected with the virus.
Have direct contact with a person infected with the virus. Even an infected dead body can still spread the virus.

How is Ebola virus disease diagnosed?
Tell your doctor about your symptoms and risk factors (for example, all recent travel). You must have symptoms of EVD and have had possible exposure to EVD in order to be diagnosed with it. Your doctor can do a blood test to confirm if you have been infected.
If you are diagnosed with EVD, you will be put in isolation right away to prevent the virus from spreading.

Can Ebola virus disease be prevented or avoided?
Currently, there is no vaccine to protect against the Ebola virus. However, scientists are working on 2 vaccines that may be available in the future.
It is rare for people in the United States or other developed countries to get infected. You can help lower your risk of infection by doing the following:

Avoid traveling to areas where known EVD outbreaks have occurred.
Do not touch the blood or body fluids of a person who may be infected with the virus.
Do not touch the body of a person who has died from EVD.
Do not touch items that may be contaminated with the virus.

People who work in health care settings should be extra cautious around those who are infected or at risk of being infected with the Ebola virus.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Call your doctor right away if you are at increased risk of being infected and you have symptoms of EVD. Avoid contact with other people until you get medical care.

Ebola virus disease treatment
Currently, there is no medicine to treat EVD. Some experimental medicines are being tested.
The main goal of treatment is to manage your symptoms. Options may include:

Getting fluids to prevent dehydration.
Regulating and replacing salts and other chemicals in the body.
Maintaining blood pressure.
Taking medicine to relieve fever, diarrhea, nausea, and pain.
Getting oxygen.
Treating other infections.

Close supervision and care by health care professionals is very important. A patient with EVD may need intensive care unit (ICU) services.

Living with Ebola virus disease
Overall, EVD leads to death in about half of people who become infected. People who recover from EVD may still be contagious. The Ebola virus can remain in certain body fluids for some time. For example, men can spread the virus through their semen for up to 3 months after their symptoms first appear. They should not have sex, including oral sex, during this time. The virus also can remain in breast milk, amniotic fluid, eye fluid, and spinal column fluid.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Ebola survivors may have lasting side effects from the virus. These could include fatigue, muscle aches, stomach pain, and eye problems.

The Ebola virus was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1976, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred in areas of Sudan and Zaire between August and November of that year. These outbreaks were attributed to Ebola virus, a new filo virus agent. More than 40 years later, we know that Ebola virus persists in nonhuman animal reservoirs in the wilds of Africa and likely elsewhere, and that inadvertent human contact with these reservoir species can facilitate zoonosis, which is the transmission of an infectious agent, in this case Ebola virus, from nonhuman animals to humans. Once present in a human population, Ebola virus is highly transmissible through person-to-person contact and can rapidly spread through a population having no preexisting immunity to the virus. Because Ebola virus can trigger a massive inflammatory response, and its viral proteins mediate immune evasion processes, the infection can result in great lethality.
Among the filo virus family, outbreaks of Ebola virus are particularly lethal. The 2014 West Africa Ebola pandemic case/fatality rate was greater than 67% in Guinea alone. The initiation and spread of the pandemic was a direct result of 1) zoonotic transmission to humans, 2) direct human-to-human spread, and 3) lack of antiviral treatment or available vaccine to protect the at-risk population from Ebola virus and associated disease. Although failed measures to regulate human encroachment on wilderness areas amidst a growing population concomitant with lack of an effective public health infrastructure certainly underlie the 2014 outbreak, a sheer lack of approved vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to combat Ebola virus infection can be held responsible for the inability to halt the spread of Ebola virus across West Africa, thus only facilitating the pandemic. Development of effective vaccines and antivirals against Ebola virus, and their application to at-risk and infected populations and individuals, is paramount for the prevention of future outbreaks and controlling pandemic spread of this deadly virus.
As the death toll from the recent Ebola outbreak rose, the usual answers to how it got so huge so quickly — poverty, bad governance, cultural practices, endemic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone — gave way to a deeper questioning of the structural causes of the poor public health response. International lending policies, including and especially those employed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), should carry much of the blame.
The IMF has been active in the region since the early 1960s and continues to exert an enormous amount of influence on how governments can dictate their own health policies. Through mechanisms known as conditionality, the IMF requires cuts (such as wage caps on health workers, as well as critical infrastructure development) to the same public systems that could have responded to the Ebola crisis before it swept across the country. When countries sacrifice budget allocations to meet macroeconomic policy prescriptions, as per the IMF’s decree, it leaves countries without money to fund basic infrastructure. Health facilities are left crumbling, sometimes without access to water or electricity, and completely unprepared for complex emergencies. Few health workers are trained in infectious disease control, and those who receive training lack protective equipment and materials due to non functioning supply systems.
There is a growing chorus calling for reform to IMF policies, and the slow response to Ebola shone a light on just how weakened the health systems have become after decades of restrictions in the name of economic reform. Serious IMF reform, including the abolition of conditionality and the cancellation of debt, are needed to better equip countries to respond to the next pandemic.
Ebola virus and Mar burg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many cases, death. Both viruses are native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades.
Ebola virus and Mar burg virus live in animal hosts, and humans can contract the viruses from infected animals. After the initial transmission, the viruses can spread from person to person through contact with body fluids or contaminated needles.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
No drug has been approved to treat either virus. People diagnosed with Ebola or Mar burg virus receive supportive care and treatment for complications. Scientists are coming closer to developing vaccines for these deadly diseases.
Signs and symptoms typically begin abruptly within five to 10 days of infection with Ebola or Mar burg virus. Early signs and symptoms include:

Severe headache
Joint and muscle aches

Over time, symptoms become increasingly severe and may include:

Nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea (may be bloody)
Red eyes
Raised rash
Chest pain and cough
Sore throat
Stomach pain
Severe weight loss
Bleeding, usually from the eyes, and when close to death, possible bleeding from the ears, nose and rectum
Internal bleeding

Ebola virus has been found in African monkeys, chimps and other nonhuman primates. A milder strain of Ebola has been discovered in monkeys and pigs in the Philippines.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Mar burg virus has been found in monkeys, chimps and fruit bats in Africa.
Transmission from animals to humans
Experts suspect that both viruses are transmitted to humans through an infected animal’s bodily fluids. Examples include:

Blood. Butchering or eating infected animals can spread the viruses. Scientists who have operated on infected animals as part of their research have also contracted the virus.
Waste products. Tourists in certain African caves and some underground mine workers have been infected with the Mar burg virus, possibly through contact with the feces or urine of infected bats.

Transmission from person to person
Infected people typically don’t become contagious until they develop symptoms. Family members are often infected as they care for sick relatives or prepare the dead for burial.
Medical personnel can be infected if they don’t use protective gear, such as surgical masks and gloves.
There’s no evidence that Ebola virus or Marburg virus can be spread via insect bites.
Risk factors
For most people, the risk of getting Ebola hemorrhagic fever or Mar burg hemorrhagic fever is low. The risk increases if you:

Travel to Africa. You’re at increased risk if you visit or work in areas where Ebola virus or Mar burg virus outbreaks have occurred.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Conduct animal research. People are more likely to contract the Ebola or Mar burg virus if they conduct animal research with monkeys imported from Africa or the Philippines.
Provide medical or personal care. Family members are often infected as they care for sick relatives. Medical personnel also can be infected if they don’t use protective gear, such as surgical masks and gloves.
Prepare people for burial. The bodies of people who have died of Ebola or Mar burg hemorrhagic fever are still contagious. Helping prepare these bodies for burial can increase your risk of developing the disease.

Both Ebola and Mar burg hemorrhagic fevers lead to death for a high percentage of people who are affected. As the illness progresses, it can cause:

Multiple organ failure
Severe bleeding

One reason the viruses are so deadly is that they interfere with the immune system’s ability to mount a defense. But scientists don’t understand why some people recover from Ebola and Mar burg and others don’t.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
For people who survive, recovery is slow. It may take months to regain weight and strength, and the viruses remain in the body for weeks. People may experience:

Hair loss
Sensory changes
Liver inflammation (hepatitis)
Eye inflammation
Testicular inflammation

Prevention focuses on avoiding contact with the viruses. The following precautions can help prevent infection and spread of Ebola and Mar burg.

Avoid areas of known outbreaks. Before traveling to Africa, find out about current epidemics by checking the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
Wash your hands frequently. As with other infectious diseases, one of the most important preventive measures is frequent hand-washing. Use soap and water, or use alcohol-based hand rubs containing at least 60 percent alcohol when soap and water aren’t available.
Avoid bush meat. In developing countries, avoid buying or eating the wild animals, including nonhuman primates, sold in local markets.
Avoid contact with infected people. In particular, caregivers should avoid contact with an infected person’s body fluids and tissues, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. People with Ebola or Mar burg are most contagious in the later stages of the disease.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Follow infection-control procedures. If you’re a health care worker, wear protective clothing, such as gloves, masks, gowns and eye shields. Keep infected people isolated from others. Dispose of needles and sterilize other instruments.
Don’t handle remains. The bodies of people who have died of Ebola or Mar burg disease are still contagious. Specially organized and trained teams should bury the remains, using appropriate safety equipment.

Ebola virus diseases (EVD) (sometimes called Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever) is the disease caused by infection with an Ebola virus. It is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) brought on by any of several strains of viruses in the Ebola virus genus. Ebola viruses are capable of causing severe, life-threatening disease. Many people who get EVD die from it. Workers performing tasks involving close contact with symptomatic individuals with EVD or in environments contaminated or reasonably anticipated to be contaminated with infectious body fluids are at risk of exposure. These workers may include workers in the healthcare, mortuary and death care, airline, and other travel service industries.
EVD is usually marked by fever, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat. The illness progression includes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and impaired organ function. In some cases, rash, internal and/or external bleeding, and death may occur.
In areas of Africa where Ebola viruses are common, suspected reservoirs include primate and bat populations. While there are no known animal reservoirs of the disease in the U.S., there is concern related to possible spread of EVD among human populations due to the availability and reach of global travel. Under certain conditions, exposure to just one viral particle can result in development of EVD. Depending on the strain and the individual infected with the disease, EVD may be fatal in 50-90 percent of cases.1The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes Ebola virus as a Category A select agent. This group includes high-priority agents that pose a risk to national security because they can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person; result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact; might cause public panic and social disruption; and require special action for public health preparedness. Because symptoms of EVD may appear consistent with many other illnesses (e.g., influenza, malaria), diagnosis and treatment of EVD could be delayed during an outbreak. Employers must protect their workers from exposure to Ebola virus on the job.
My time in Africa highlighted to me just how little we know about the Ebola outbreak and how far it has spread. In my essay I detail the problems that the WHO are having keeping the outbreak contained and eradicating the problem. I also highlight the ways we are losing the fight against Ebola.
Whilst in Africa I couldn’t help but notice how the Ebola virus didn’t appear in isolated cases. What happens is that a village is cleared for having the disease, and then suddenly a lot of people are infected at one time for no discernible reason. It is almost as if someone throws a batch of the disease into the water supply to infect many people at once. The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
There are a lot of theories about why this is happening. Some say that the water is poisoned–even though tests show it is not. Some are saying the people are being infected on purpose to test vaccines and make money from selling vaccines to aid workers and the WHO. My findings indicate a very different scenario.
The fact is that African families are hiding their infected family members. They hide them mostly through fear of then being isolated from their own community. When one family member is ill, the rest of the family is spurned and even attacked and forced to leave the village and surrounding area.
That is not the only reason why African families are hiding their ill family members. There are some that believe faith in a higher power or native medicine will heal their ill, and many do not trust the health-care workers that are being sent in to help. I watched as doctors, professionals and medical staff were chased out of villages and attacked.
Health and aid workers are being attacked because they look like the bad guys. They take ill people from the village, the ill people die, they are incinerated, and the people in the village never see them again. People are giving up their family members in large trucks to be sent to quarantine, and those people are never seen again. To some African families, the health workers are nothing short of abduction crews removing beloved and ill family members.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Many family members would prefer to die surrounded by the ones they love and not in a WHO medical facility. I also found that a lot of families were distressed at the fact they couldn’t visit their ill family members and how when they gave them up to the WHO they were seeing them for the last time. Key family members have been stricken with the illness, which leaves families without a leader and without any way to make money. The situation is grim to say the least.
What are the symptoms of Ebola?
The incubation period is 2 to 21 days. Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle, pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The average case fatality rate ranges from 25% to 90%. In the current epidemic, an average of 36% of cases are fatal. In Guinea, however, 60% of cases end in death, while in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the rate is 42% and 22% respectively.
What are the possible treatments for Ebola?
Supportive care-dehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated. No licensed vaccines are available yet, but potential vaccines are undergoing or will soon undergo human safety testing.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
Is a vaccine available?
Currently, no licensed vaccine, specific treatment or cure exists for this disease. Development of a preventive vaccine against EVD would therefore satisfy an urgent unmet public health and medical need.
Throughout history a variety of deadly diseases have threatened mankind. Many diseases have the capability to spread fast and rapidly kill people. But with modern advances in medicine, man had defeated most of these deadly diseases and thought the threat was over. However, a shockingly new and deadly disease caused by the Ebola virus has challenged the medical community. The medical researchers of today cannot find a cure or vaccine to halt the spread of this pathogenic disease. The Ebola virus is a definite threat to mankind, and its symptoms have a devastating effect on the human body.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper
The most recent outbreaks of Ebola were very deadly because the Ebola virus is a new disease. The initial outbreak was of an unknown origin in Zaire, Africa, during the year 1976. The medical community was unsure of how to handle Ebola, since it was the first recorded outbreak. This first outbreak in Zaire was followed by a second outbreak in western Sudan, also during the year 1976. In total, 340 people died from Ebola out of the 550 cases that were identified in these two nations (“Ebola History” N.pag.). Ebola was discovered again in 1995 in Kikwit, Zaire, when a victim infected an entire surgical team. Those infected developed symptoms of viral Hemorrhagic Fever disease.The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper There were approximately 233 deaths out of the 293 cases caused by Ebola in 1995 (“Ebola History” N.pag.). Each of the separate Ebola outbreaks have killed many people. Therefore, it is imperative that all people of the world take great precaution so that another outbreak does not occur.
The Ebola virus is a frightening disease. It is called Hemorrhagic Fever, which means it causes uncontrollable bleeding. When an outbreak occurs, it carries a 50% to 90% mortality rate (“Ebola Overview Virus” N.pag.). Ebola is a virus that travels in different organisms or hosts. The Ebola Virus Assignment Paper

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